Genetics I
This page is my genetic notes. It is 'done " by date, top to bottom and the reader may well find it confusing.  Genetics II is a compilation and is intended to be read in sequence.
We generally will not backdate or correct previous positions on this page.

(return to index page )
The following pages show some of the breeding lines as they have developed.

List of sections and topics

    Silver in Burmese
    Wide band
    Angel Christian litter
    First hint of super wide band

Second hint of swb
Claudius  see also what is a caramel below
super wide band  - proof
 Genetics of B1
Lavina and Fundus litter + variations on smoking
a discussion on golden 'is my kitten golden"
an illustration of a sable self  (as in burmese) burmilla cat that is silver not golden based   we do not believe this is a Smoke BUT---
Web connections to a review of wide band and smoking
Genetics of the shaded American Shorthair   By Dr. Carol W. Johnson, DVM, Ph  we have placed this article in a table and commented on it by paragraph as it relates to our understandng of genetics and wideband/smoke and the Burmilla  etc. June '08
More on what is a smoke  - - the details of a Golden ticked breeding to a Black cat  - clearly not silver. We take this as a proof of "widebanding". This placed Dec. 2008 and based on writing /observation and breeding  spring / summer '08.
On Eye colour - -feb '09

A determination of colour based on paw pads - -  Jan17'09
What is Caramel  - - -caramel is not a colour!!! posted 1 Jan '10
Variations on a theme of smoking  - - post June 2011

Applied Genetics or A Genetic Discussion. (as of 11/06/01) draft 3  -Sp in, Dm out more thoughts.
These discussions assume that the reader has some knowledge of, and is interested in, broad based cat genetics. We will not try to teach the subject here but rather point out the characteristics of the breed, as they appear and as we see them. We are not always correct, sometimes we must amend our conclusions in light of subsequent breeding, and increased understanding.
This section is written in 'thought process' order. and a such may appear to be disjointed to the reader. We apologize but thought you might be interested in following along with us. Besides to continually rewrite as our knowledge expands would take too much time ;-).

There are many good web sites on the internet on "cat genetics".  For our text references we use Gloria Stephen's book Legacy of the Cat edit #1,  and Robinsons 'Genetics for Cat Breeders and Veterinarians' edit #4. We recommend the beginner to Gloria Stephen's book Legacy of the Cat. It has more information packed into a few pages, with explanatory pictures, than any other text we have found. We use both books bouncing from one to the other. Gloria also has a good web site with many links. (Key word her name on a search engine.) A very good article by Breton /Creek is posted on the Net Pets site. That same article is posted on various sites. It has, what I suggest is a, formatting problem on its second chart that created some confusion for me, but the same article is posted on Ms. Stephen's site in its original form. This cleared up my misunderstanding. Note; as of Christmas 2001 we have "Legacy" edit. #2

Take warning, this subject is not for the faint hearted or those "clone breeders" who spent their time discussing head type and genetically manage little else. We struggle with the subject as those readers of this site can attest to.

We are dealing with the genics of cat fur. It is often only this aspect that differentiates a "Breed' so that within the Burmilla (burmese/chinchilla) gene pool are genetics that are exclusive to many other 'breeds'. The only other breeding programs, we can think of that has this diversity are the The Oriental short and longhair and the Abyssinian/Somali.

Most laymen understand that a cat is either long haired or short. Short hair is the dominant genetic trait but this is not quite so simple as is suggested, in our experience. None of our so called long haired cats have anything like the coat length of the Persian. They would probably be classified as semi longhairs if CCA had such a designation. Hair length seems to be a degree sort of thing. Hair discussions also need to talk about undercoat, its thickness lift or pushiness if you will. We are not sure of those genetics but it now appears to us that this dense under fur is transmitted separately from long fur and that is is a recessive. Our shorthairs seem to have some lift but not much after the second generation and we work to reduce this characteristic.
We see our LH Burmilla as having very much softer fur than the Chinchilla. The thickness of the undercoat is again somewhat variable but considerably less than the Persian cat resulting in a coat that lies down, and does not mat or require the large amount of care that Persians require. The other distinguishing feature is the LH Burmilla tend to look slightly out of focus or misty due to the fineness of the hair shafts. As with most LH cats they have the "wings" out to the side at the base of the ears. Neutering the cat often results in an increase in coat length. An example of that is some early/late views of Meerani on this site. We hope to spend some time on hair genetics, as it does play into color perception but we need a microscope to do that. Hope for a good Christmas present.

Genetics of Fur in the Burmilla Program
In play are A.B.C.D.L.O.Ta.I.Dm.Wb
That is
A  - Agouti/non. a is non
B  - Black/chocolate.  b is chocolate
C  - Full colour/sepia. cb is sepia or burmese restriction
D  - Dense/maltesed pigmentation.  d is dilute or maltesed
L  - Short/longhair. l is long hair  (Note this is one where the capital letter does not denote the dominant characteristic)
O  - Orange/non Sx link. o is not having the sex inked orange color override
Ta - Tabby Abyssinain/non. ta being not aby tabby and allowing mackeral / classic and spots to show through
I  - Inhibitor/golden. i being golden which we thing is the basic ground color of the fur. There are other considerations here re high rofusion.
Wb -Wide/narrrow band. wb being narrow  band (our terminology)

ta/ta requires that we consider Mc and Sp. These are Mackerel/classic tabby and Spotting/non. Unless we are dealing with ta/ta we will leave then out of the genetic string.
We have discounted Dm, Dilute/non modifier after running it for some time. Our comments as to why are below.
We do not discuss R (re) - normal coat not rex, s/s -  normal colour not piebald, w/w  - normal colour not dominant white, and wh/wh - normal coat not wirehair at this time. We assume all cats are R/R, s/s, w/w, wh/wh, bu---ut  who knows!!
We are beginning to think of very wide band cats as in the Chinchilla as super wide band (swb). normal/not being SWB. This is our descriptor as we know of no other.

The brick nose is related to all this , but I don't know how yet. O cats don't count, 'cause its masked??. All a/a cats do not have one. It now seems all A/- cats do. Of those, the brick nose appears as late as  4 weeks after birth, in some cases and as we see it. we can not find a text reference to this.

There are some basic phenotypic/genetic facts that I will deal with.

The silver inhibitor gene I,  is separate from agouti gene. Robinsons p 142 defines a smoke as being a NON agouti cat. They say " The silver tabby exhibits a fairly low level of expression of this gene, while the chinchilla silver is a fine example of extreme phenotype...The smoke is the non-agouti form(aaI-). The white undercoat is evident but each hair contains appreciably more pigment due to the lack of the additive inhibitory properties of the agouti factor."
In the prior para Robinsons also says
"Because the melanin inhibitor gene is extremely variable in its expression, it can exhibit impenetrance, resulting in occasional cats with no visible white undercoat that nonetheless breed as smokes"
Wide band(Wb), a hypothesized gene, is explained as "presumed effect of the gene is to widen the agouti band on the hairs" Robinsons p 138 and "Longhaired cats expose more of the agouti band and do not have such an obvious tabby pattern as do shorthairs." and "The golden tabby, shaded golden and chinchilla golden were developed from chinchilla longhairs.

We have had some unusual results. We will try and explain them using Wb and I.

Lastly, please bear in mind that I (your editor) am not a English major, and 'are' a two fingered typist.

It seems that the width of the band is variable Wb/-. It is at its highest degree in the Chinchilla Persian a tipped or cameo cat. The band can be either silver(I/-) or golden (i/i). The silver I gene is much stronger in its colour inhibition qualities.  Robinsons p138

Please note :  for now   We understand 

  • Self (a/a)=100% colour. 
  • Smoke(a/a,I/-) =50-75% colour. 
  • Shaded=25-50% colour. 
  • Tipped =Chinchilla=(A/-.I/-.Wb/- < 25% colour. 
  • Full expression = C/-
  • Burmese colour =Pointed=Sepia=cb/cb
The kitten to the left  is the daughter of Purr-sephone, a 
tipped,ticked cat  and Zeus a sepia champagne smoked non ticked cat (a/a.b/b.cb/cb.D/d.L/l.oo.Ta?.I/-.Wb/-).

She is 
or shaded (to tipped), ticked (adjouti A/-), sepia sable Sh Burmilla kitten. 
Burmillas tend to lighten up as their full silvered undercoat comes in. 


Here we have a much darker Burmilla with more colour on the shaft. 
She is the also the daughter of Purr-sephone and Zeus. While it is early to be sure it would seem she has about 50% colour on the hair shaft along the back.The ticking extends over the paws and the necklace is almost complete. We suggest that this is about as far as you could go before the cat would then be classified as a Ticked Tabby Burmilla.
Generally to qualify as a "Tabby" cat the necklace must be full and complete, more than 2/3 of the hair shaft must be coloured and all the body should be ticked.  Thus reduced inhibitor results in the "Ticked Tabby" 
The question becomes 'what in the genetics has produced this different inhibitor affect'.
She is 
A/a   - no question, adjouti
B/b  - again no question black
cb/cb -   she has to be sepia black
she is not .LL or O  dilute long or orange
there only 2  possible  genes in play Wb and I
she has to be wb/wb   -  narrowband
She is also I/- silver
This (dual view photo) kitty also comes  from Purr-sephone, and Zeus
In the unticked cats it can often be very difficult to decide on colour. 
You could have, a sepia black (B/-.cb/cb) giving brown to the eye as is a sable Burmese), a full colour chocolate (b/b.C/-. also brown to the eye as in a Havana , or a poorly smoked sable ie. with a very little inhibitor (wb/wb) giving light brown to the appearance. 

This boy must be (a/a.B/-.cb/cb). It is the recessives that define the situation. 

This composite photo is of another of Pursephone's litter. Note  the rich brown in a sable self boy above and the lighter brown  sable sister to the left. 
What is of interest here is the white spot on this girls chest.
She is (a/a.B/-.cb/cb) as is her brother
Again there only 2  possible  genes in play Wb and I
to define the difference. 
She has to be I/- to have silver
she has to be wb/wb   - narrowband 
The only conclusion can be that she is a narrow band smoke. 

Therefore we believe the genetics of narrow/wide band are straight forward, that there is no significant "variable expression". We also suggest that the only reason it shows is due to the sepia gene.
This white chest patch is an issue on some Burmese. We postulate most and not all Burmese are narrow band golden(wb/wb.i/i). Those that show white patches are likely narrow band silver(wb/wb.I/-).

Go test the theory. The reader should note that our conclusion does not agree with Gloris Stephens Edit #2. page 21 wherein she defines a smoke as wbwb (narrow band) she says.."..other genes involved..We know that the inhibitor is there because when we breed a smoke X brown tabby we get silver tabbies. "
A smoke in our understanding is 
a/a...I/-....Wb/-  ---non agouti, silver,wide band 
a brown tabby is; (we assume narrow band, see below)
A/-. ..i/i.. wb/wb --agouti, golden, narrow band
offspring  If one assumes homozygous it all cases
A/-...I/-... Wb/-    ---which is what she says she gets ---I would assume the tabby  it is wide band. 
We do not see anything that damages our theory. 

The recessive of the silver inhibitor gene is expressed as golden (i/i). It then gives a golden colour to the background vice silver when the agouti banding of the colour on the hair shaft is in the off mode. 

We have been advised that a golden shaded tabby has been done. The golden Persian is there so it must be possible. This is discussed in the Wide band hypothesis in Robinsons p 138.

Our Black Ticked Golden Tabby F1 Burmilla girl, MissTick, with lots of ticking and a very nice necklace. she comes from 
Renaissance , a Sable Traditional Burmese
a/a.B/-.cb/cb.D/.L/L.oo.Ta/.i/i.wb/wb and 
we assume Ta and L/L as are most Burmese .
Christian, our Chinchilla Persian.
we assume ta/ta see tile 25 below. We know from his pedigree that his mother was golden i/i. We also know that he is heterozygous for Wb as you will see below tile 20.
Thus Misstick is agouti, black, full colour,,not dilute, short hair, not orange, abby tabby, golden, narrow band.

a mother
cb mother
l father
ta father

Well this is Mistick's litter with Simon a Cream Burmese, and that boy in the front was a big surprise.
This then has to mean that the silver boy got his stuff from Simon and that Simon is heterozygous (I/i) for this characteristic. 
Simon is

we believe the kitten is
A/a.B/-.cb/cb.D/-.L/-.o/y.Ta/- I/i. wb/wb.


Spotting Robinsins P 136 para 5.  I will paraphrase.
There are 3 separate genes locations operating on the tabby pattern. The are: Ta (abby tabby/not); Mc (mackeral tabby/classic); and Sp (spotting /not).
If a cat is Ta/-, the Mc and the Sp can not be seen. It is epistatic.
If a cat is ta/ta (not) and sp/sp (not) a cat can be seen as Mc/- mackeral, or mc/mc  classic.
If a cat is ta/ta and Sp/- it will be spotted and if Mc/-, have full spots  if mc/mc have donut spots ie ocicats.
This composite photograph shows another possible Burmilla variation, the Spotted Tabby.
A Black Spotted Golden Tabby F1 Burmilla girl, Tiverton's Andromeda. She is the daughter of Katie a Sable Traditional Burmese and Chicos Christian of Strathkirk, a Chinchilla Persian. We knew The boy was (I/i).  and as also proven below (Panel 20) he is also Wb/wb.

Andromeda belongs to Ms. Pat Slater of Tiverton Cattery .

Robinsons p 137 deals with all this and is very confusing. First para they say
"Expression of the Abyssisian pattern may manifest itself in two ways:
- as a week striping on the legs and rings on the tail for the heterozygote Ta/ta .Mc/- or mcmc
- as the absence or reduction of these markings for the homozygote
Ta/Ta .Mc/- or mc/mc"
This has nothing to do with spotting and should be ignored at this time. It is a very minor point anyway.
Robinsons are not clear what a ta/ta.Mc/- or mc/mc cat would look like.
Stephens says p13 last para "The agouti(Abyssinan tabby or ticked tabby) appears to be dominant to other patterns..." She than photos the 3 patterns on page 14 they are the 1) Abby tabby, (my word); 2) Mackerel Tabby (bars down the side); 3) Classic tabby (with the bulls eye on the side).

Robinsons also says just proir to their above quote;
"use the letters Mc to represent the dominant mackeral tabby paturn, while mc ... the recessive classic, blotched tabby pattern." We will hence forth remove their term "blotched ".

Robinsons then go on to say in their next para and the reader will note that I have reordered these 2 quotes for better understanding (my view) and removed a misprint;
"Breeding data suggest a dominant modifying gene(...Sp) responsible for the spotted tabby phenotype" and 
"...two forms of spotted tabby pattern. The first is a modification of the mackerel in which the vertical stripes are discontinuous (giving) short bars or spots. Modification of the 'classic' tabby pattern ...for the round 'ocicat' type spots. 
Stephens concurs on p 79

It thus falls out that a Ta/- will mask the Mc/- or mc/mc patterns, and all Sp/- cats. Further,  all mackeral and classic tabbies, are sp/sp.


This is a photo of a very young, and fast moving, Silver Spotted Tabby F1 Burmilla kitten. He is the son of Ginette. a Platinum Traditional Burmese and Christian   our foundation Chinchilla Persian.

The genetics then yields that both Ginette and Katie are  -/ta cats, and  Christian may well be Sp/- but so too could the Burmese ladies. My bet is the ladies 'cause we have seen it so seldom, but time will tell.


In the summer of 2001 we have this rather remarkable litter, (to the left) which along with Misstick's boy got us reading the textbooks.
We will put our theories to work
Diana, a Black Smoke Tortie Burmilla, shown here with her kittens, was bred to Wigram a Sable (Brown in England)Burmese stud.
Diana is
she is smoke - by our definition wide band 

Wigram is
he is not I he has no white and he is certainly not wide band 
assume because he is a burmese  Ta. He carries chocolate from his previous litters and dilute from his fathers pedigree and his litters


So, as far as we can tell Diana is a homozygous for "Full Colour" and is a (C/C) cat because none of the kittens are sepia.
we have made her so above.

We know Wigs carries genetics for dilution sometimes called "Maltesing". Because he is sable and he "carries", he is(heterzygous D/d).
The kitten on the right indicated that Diana does also, thus she is D/d
It is a Indigo tortie female.

There is no colour change along the hair shaft.

the Rh kitten would be
i/? she has no silver and is very dark  we believe this indicates i/i which is possible
there is no wide band
C/c no sepia showing father sepia

the Lh kitty would be
clearly silver and smoke Wb

Both phenotypes match the possibilities.

Diana produced two full expression cream male kittens One is shown fully here. That is his brothers head. Their coats are identical in appearance. Genetically creams can be :
a/a.B/-.C/-.d/d.O/y.    which would be masked Black dilute
a/a.B/-.cb/cb.d/d.O/y.   masked Black sepia dilute
a/a.b/b.C/-.d/d.O/y.   masked Brown dilute and
a/a.b/b.cb/cb.d/d.O/y. masked Brown sepia dilute. We are not considering the b1 genes
Given our conclusions above in panel 4, each colour could also be I/- or i/i giving a min. combination genetic possibility of 4X2=8
We think these 2 boys are;

We believe them both to be shaded ?? silver and are certain they are not sepia, but are continuing to monitor. We have wavered on this as these two factors are very hard to differentiate in a cream.

Of the last 3 items i is largely a guess as creams can easly mask this qualities. As is discussed below they are clearly wb/wb - narrow band.



Opposite is  a Full Colour Red. 
Without considering cinamon (b1), red cats can be masked :
a/a.B/-.C/-.D/-.O/y.   Black 
a/a.B/-.cb/cb.D/-.O/y.   Black sepia 
a/a.b/b.C/-.D/-.O/y.  Brown dilute
a/a.b/b.cb/cb.D/-.O/y. Brown sepia 
Again given our conclusions above in panel 4, each colour could also be I/- or i/i giving a min. combination genetic possibility of 4X2=8
This boy  is;

If ever there was a dmdm cat this would be it. It is this panel that concludes dm/dm is functionally = to i/i and therefore nonexistant. We also find interesting the photo in Stephens p 89 of a persian litter.
He is Ta because the tabby pattern can be seen.
He is certainly i/i there is no silver, and he is not wideband. That also can be seen. He proves his mother to be I/i, We have made her so.

His colour is very distinguishable from that of a Red Burmese (Sepia red). It is much more intense and was apparent from birth.
Often the best clue to full colour versus sepia is the birth colour.

 Of interest is the colour of the markings on the back of the leg and the stomach of this boy in the picture below in the top right corner.

The boy on the left has no leg barring, or stomach markings, he is silver in that area. His forehead colour is slightly less intense than than his red brother with the M marking being more noticeable. 
As with the creams if one hadn't seen the rest of the litter it would be easy to believe this might be a Sepia and not Full Colour cat.

That is the black smoke tortie girl with him

Both Robinsons (details pgs 143 and 163) and Ms. Stephen's agree wherein she says on page 12 "The nom-adjouti gene is not operative on phaeomelanin. In red or cream cats, the red and yellow bands (adjouti  banding) are present, allowing the tabby pattern to be seen."
See also Robinsons p 163 para 2-4 they are very clear on this. It then falls out that an A/- can not be differentiated from a/a  cat.
Our 8 possible genetic possibilities in a red or cream cats become 16. We also remind you of panel 12. The i/i (non silver/golden) cat is different in appearance. 

A Red, a Red shaded ?? and a Cream shaded??
No a self narrow band golden red, a self narrow band silver red and a self narrow band silver cream. 
We expect a wide band golden red would be difficult. The photos of the Abyssinian Ruddy see Stephens p 28 are interesting.

the self narrow band silver red boy 
the I/i is the only difference with his red brother who is i/i
A red burmese would be; 
self, narrow band, silver, sepia, red, golden or silver.... And just what do you think the difference between golden and silver would look like?? 
Those cats are already in the show rings.
Three variations on a red theme of I.

The conclusion then is that as Diana is smoked.
There are no ticked cats in the litter.
We also conclude that she is homozigous for full colour, (C/C) as there do not appear to any Sepia (cb/cb) cats in the litter.

There are one other questions that then comes out of this picture. 
What is the boy in the center
The Red Tip.Where did that level of silver come from?


Robinson P142  "This gene (I) appears to have a greater ability to suppress phaeomelanin pigmment than eumelanin..resulting in the prevention of the eumelanine to phaeomelanin shift.  ."

Another view of the red tipped boy.
He (in front) can't be tipped genetically.  He certainly is by appearance.


We think that the difference between the 3 cats is wide band and silver. The very red being i/i narrow band, the red ("shaded" ) being  I/i narrow band and this boy being I/i .Wb/- wideband.
Thus this boy is:
He is a self, red, wide band = smoke red=cameo

An interesting point is that this boy's colour coat is very even and is darkening as he ages. 

Subsequent to this breeding Flamethrower produced a litter with Wigram that helped us further to define the red colouring in the Burmilla. Our comments on that, and a photo of her litter, are with her linked picture. You will note we had to redo her colour.
Silver tends to wash out the red (Phaeomelanin) colour more than non red as in black brown or blue (Eumelanin) cats. [ see quote above]Almost all smokes appear to be tipped.  We suspect they are not so genetically. Medusa (opposite) also displays a  often seen 'moire' effect, that is a patchiness of the red colour which we often see in smoked (we think ) non red cats when young. 
( I wonder if this it the 'tarnishing' than Robinson refers to on P 142 and p144 where it is called a 'manifestation of rufus polygenes') This tends to even out with age. This kitty comes from; 
Aurora who is  the daughter of CH Mimosa Morning , a Champagne Tortie Foreign Burmese  who was (a/a.b/b.cb/cb.D/d.L/L.O/o.asm Ta/-.i/i wb/wb )and
Orion, a Red Tipped Silver F1 Burmilla short hair who was (A/a.?. C.cb.D? L/l.Ta/??.I/i.Wb/-) :
Auroria is;
we suspect given our present understanding she is A/-

Far  who is  a  72 43fsq (shorthair shaded cream  silver sepia)cat  from a 72 43s (shorthair black shaded silver)sire and a 6843 dsq (longhair shaded red silver sepia) dame.
Far is;

As of 10/30/01 we believe this cat in the photo to be
agouti, unknown on black, probably sepia dilute,  carrying long, orange, silver, and wide band.
A/-. ??. cb/cb.d/d.L/l.O/O.I/- and Wb/-
We also believe that given the similar eveness of colour of Far to the boy above in panel 18 that Far may be smoke as is his sister Leading Lady.
All ?  should resolve with Burmese breedings. 
Given our comments below Far may be I/I and not smoke

So we expected all the her littermates to be very silvered and they were.

Here we have a litter of 
Christian, our Chinchilla Persian. who is 
Angel a cream Burmese
a/a.B/-.cb/cb.d/d.L/L.O/O.asm Ta/.asm i/i.asm dmdm.wb/wb
all kittens are 
A/a. B/-.C/cb.D/d.L/l.O/o or y. Ta/ta.I/- and Wb/ except the red boy who appears to be I/i wb/ wb thus Christian must Wb/wb.
You will note above we said we assumed Angle i/i. Latterly we remember Angle is the sister to Simon [see panel (6)] Angel may well have been I/i and given the distribution of the litter, and Christians golden mother, very likely was I/I.

This litter included Orian, Calypso, Vesta, and Horizons Dynasty Dawn of Gitalya.
The boy in the center bottom shows the uneven red coat we see as being typical of 'red.agouti .wide bands'. This could be what Robinsons refers to on P 142  "Occasional break-through production of phaeomelanin pigment can occur in silver cats, resulting in a phenommenon commonly referred to as 'tarnishing'.  This appears to solely occur in cats heterozygous for the I allele."

Our conclusions so far:
a) All Burmese are wb/wb -  narrow band (well duh! you say)   homozygous and we take the Wb  genetics hypothesized in Robinsons p 138 as straight forward single gene inheritance.

b) Burmese are I/I I/i and i/i.  We take that as proven. One of the curious aspects of Robinsons is that they do not spend much time discussing  the recessive. All cats have the same genes, and like it or not they , the recessives, are doing something.

c) We speculate that Burmese with the white locket (See also Robinsons P151 on Lockets) are  a/a cats with I/- or if you will, are an example of narrow band smokes.  Our speculations do not agree with Robinsons p 151 conclusions. Robinsons also makes comments in ref. to Heterozygous versus homozygous effects being different,  in discussion of  I/- (see quote panel 20 above) and in reference to Abyssinian pattern intensity(Ta/- .Mcmc) of (leg) markings on P 137. We will try to do some more (golden tabby/Burmese)breedings to sort this out.
Re:   polygenics and levels of expression. We believe that this comment is an often used euphemism for "we haven't done our checkerboard work yet".

d) True Smokes are self cats with inhibitor and wide band. Given evidence above as to conclusion b) above we do not agree with the conclusions presented by Ms. Naoni Johnson in her copy written article Para 6 and 7 on the Asian Cat Society web site or GS edit #2 page 21.

e) We  see our  I/-cats  as being on order of silver effect;
    1) non agouti, narrow band.- - 0%, and hope for no lockets
    2) agouti , narrow band --25%,  usually seen on the belly and lower sides -called silver tabbies
    3 ) non agouti wide band --50% , largely an even distribution  - called smokes and
    4) agouti, wide band. --75% ,  again even distribution called shaded, sometimes tipped, or cameo.
Please note:  our numbers are eye apparent approximations,  and not at this time by actual measure.

f) We see the visual amount of silver seen, can be amended by;
    1) the [O] gene, one simply needs look at any silvered tortie to see the level of wash out in the red areas.
    2) long hair [l ] which changes the amount of visual tipping seen.  see Robinsons p127 -8,130 and 165-6,
    3) [cb] sepia, as in the lockets, allowing the I/- to show through and varying the intensity of colour, and
    4) Maltesed pigmentation [d].

g) The Burmese is an ideal cat to do this work with as it has a number of  homozygous recessives.

h) We still see a 10% approx. variability is the silver wide band effect that we can not totally explain away to those genes noted in (f) above. It speaks to the super wide band seen in Christian, Odyseus and  Sunderland's sister seen below in panel 24 and those short hair, ticked cats that are between silver tabby and shaded. In the smoke we see the difference as between Isis and Lucina but in this case it may be due to the sepia. We will discuss O-boy and the "Tippers"below. As of 2002 we have decided to track this characteristic. We call it for want of a better name "super wide band"and use the designator  'swb' . We believe it to be recessive. We do not think it acts independently of Wb, but it may.  Time will tell.

i) Given conclusion f) above and this h) this could account for the confusion and conclusion that Stephens has in her para p 15 on 'Tipping" and possible ticked smokes. We will test that on Isis. It would prove the case but not disprove it. PS  We have had difficulty with the photo Ms Stephens presents on p 59 of the Mau - Black Smoke as being smoke (a non agouti cat) but our Isis also shows some markings. Conclusion, that cat has a black nose so must be smoke, go figure.

j) Our next best supposition as to where this remaining I variability is coming from, is related to the Ta/ta variable expression, mentioned above and in Robinsons p 137, -  -  but as you will see below we have discounted that!!

k) We need to keep photos of all litters. It's all in the record somewhere. It just has to be pulled out. Keep going.

l) We continue to have discomfort around the Dilute modifier -DM gene as outlined on page 141 of Robinsons. We think from what we see that there is a distinct possibility that this is merely the manifestation of I/- and i/i in dilute cats. Using  Occam's razor, it is an elegantly simple explanation. It would be interesting to know P Turner's reasons for suggesting it. If you look at the diagrams Ms. Stephens presents (edit 1) on P 12 of the various colour dot deposition  patterns  not only do the full colour patterns show increasing space between the colour dots but the Maltese patterns show large spaces. What colour is the substrate on the i/i cat verses the I/- cat. It has got to effect what the eye sees. If so, all cats have this caramel/taupe/apricot colour variation, particularly the dilutes/maltesed cats.

m)[may2002] We continue to think the colour substrate, or the actual colour of the hair manufacture is either I,-  silver or i,- golden and that the colour is deposited on it. (Not  a original thought). Other genetics, poly genes if you will, can make the golden darker as in the Abyssinian. It is interesting to note that all goldens seem to have this white under the chin as do Tigers.  I think that Somali Sorrels are actually wide band goldens and may in fact be super wide band cats ie genetically the same as a Chinchilla except golden and highly rofoused. I have spoken to breeders of these cats and can not get an answer.
A long hair black golden ticked boy. 

Adjouti, Black, Full [not sepia]Colour, Dense [not maltesed/dilute], not shorthair , normal [not orange]pigmentation , tabby pattern [ not mackeral, or classic,spotted?? and, not wide band.
this established from his appearance
his mother is Esmerelda his father is Fluffernutter  He has 2 sisters both being shown, one looks like him the other is Ecstacy who is a brown sepia.
b/b.cb/cb all else the same.

The boy nearer the camera, Brown Shadow, is  a full expression 
sable silver ticked long hair narrow band
or in gene talk;  agouti, brown, full colour, dense , long, abby tabby, silver, narrow band.
(Of interest is just how much the sepia (cb/cb) washes out the colour on Ecstacy)

he is
A/-.b/b.C/-.D/-.l/l.o/y.Ta/-.I/-.wb/wb  by appearance
and genetically is

He is from Isis
who is

and Nelson
who is
A/a .B/b.cb/cb.D/-.l/l.o/y.Ta/-.I/i.Wb/wb
Thus both parents must carry narrow band so we have added it to their profiles.


Horizons Minerva
born 18 May 01 to
Silver Dart (Dart) is a Platinum female Foreign F1 Burmese) and Fluffernutter(An F3 LH Sable Ticked Silver male Burmilla) - F4
Sable Ticked Silver female
photo 9/15/01

a from her mother
b from mother
d from mother
l from father
o and Ta are visible
we guess Ta/Ta given robinsondp 137 para 0
i from mother assumed
she is narrow band
her littermates were 3 selfs, 2 ticked as she is

All above is what we said on Minerva originally based on what we saw at the time.
This Feb 02 photo, left below, taken when she is 9 months shows her colour as golden. (It s a good representative photo on my screen)  The golden has taken some time to develope.
Thus she is i/i vice I/i. This raises three points then ;

1)  both parents carry  golden (we still think Fluffernutter might be golden not silver)
2)  given the photo above in panel 22 is she Sable or full expression Champagne? - - We have checked her paw pads carefully and they are very clearly a dark brown thus she would have to be "sable" or if you will Burmese restricted black.
3) her father has to be Sable as there were no full expression (C/-)kittens in the litter. His colour would be proven.

comment ; a multiple recessive platinum Burmese is a good x breeding to prove colours. 
Poor quality golden is often hard to distinguish, and you will waver on your decission depending on the light.

Super wide band Silver a speculation on our part
An  example of this increased silver effect is Odysseus. His littermates at that time were Isis and a Blue self.
He is by appearance

he was for the first year seen as Champagne as this picture of oct /01 . He is registered as such. He has since darkened and is clearly sable. An interesting effect of the I?? We think his kittens are doing the same.
He is from 
B.B shorthaired Champagne Ticked Tabby Burmilla female A/a.b/b.cb/cb.D/-.L/l.o/y.Ta/-.i/i.wb/wb 
Daedalous (Black Shaded Silver SH Burmilla male F2)

and genetically he is
Ta? we can not be sure what he is.


lady hamilton 2

A brother and sister. Horizons Sunderland,  at 5 weeks, left top as a kitten, is a sable burmese restriction/'Sepia' Burmilla. It is expected that his colour will darken and the lines on his forehead and tail rings will disappear. He is our first LH self, the cat we call the longhair Burmese. The sepia effect can be seen more easily on a longhhair, ie on his chest. He is
a/a.B/-.cb/cb.D/-.l/l-.o/y.Ta/-.i/i.wb/wb (whoops see below)
This established from his appearance. The tabby markings seen,  ie tail markings, suggest other than Ta. (ie ta/ta.Mc/-) We make him i/i as he is both sepia and showing no locket (The proof is in the pudding, it will take a year to bake the cake)

His sister is a LH Champagne tipped. They are both from two cats neither of which is tipped. 
Nelson and
A/a .B/b.cb/cb.D/-.l/l.o/y.Ta/-.I/i.Wb/wb
this breeding proves Nelson to be I/i we need back up proof and we ?/? have it because Nelson produced a Champagne tortie self with Blue Skies with no lockets and she is i/i (which is likly but not guaranteed)
Leading lady
A/a .b/b.C/cb.d/d.l/l.O/o.Ta/ta-.I/i-.Wb/wb 
The tipped kitten  is by appearance
A/- .b/b.cb/cb.d/d.l/l.o/o.Ta/?-.I/-..Wb/-

and by genetics
A/- .b/b.cb/cb.d/d.l/l.o/o.Ta/?-.I/-.Wb/-

So far the theories are OK.
Below ,  a photo of the tipped kitten Lady Hamilton at 8 months .
of interest  - - it is said that all Chinchilla kittens are not tipped when young, and lady Ham was.

An aside on colour. 4 months later

We give you this, to illustrate the difficulty (discussed in panel 3) in defining colour is some cats.

Sunderland, has departed the cattery to his own home and we miss him.

Sunderland now "?? " at home - what a great photo Gary!

These are 3 photos of Sunderland taken when he was 5 months. As you can see he is very clearly not a self cat. Neither is he sable. He is a full expression champagne silver smoke wide band  and as such is:
a/a.b/b.C/cb.D/-.l/l-.o/y.Ta/-.I/-.Wb/- (which is genetically possible)
The "smoke" took some time to develope  and was fairly clear at 4 months. The colour was difficult as he does appear to be pointed, but if you look at a number of our sable smokes they tend to be very close to a grey colour and not as brown as is seen in the sable Burmese. A view of panel 22 also helps. The defining point is the colour of the paw pads. Dark pink.

We still wonder about the "smoke". perhaps he is wide band, golden    ( ???)  and that is why is is so faint.

25) continuing with our discussion on silver

Leda who is from 
odysseus   A/-.B/b.cb/cb.D/d.L/L?.o/y.Ta?.I/i.Wb/wb and
rumena  A/-.B/b.cb/cb.D/d.L/-.o/o.Ta/-.I/i.Wb/wb
and is
Ta? not visible 

The question is why were all wide band kittens born at F1 to Christian less silvered than he was (see panel 20). Is that an indicator of recessive. If the explanation is put off to shorthair, then why Odyseus. Sepia doesn't explain everything as Christian didn't have that. What do these cats  O-boy, above, kitten above and Leda and Hebe, have in common with  Christian to get superwide band / tipping.   ?? 

"Basically the genotype of the chinchilla..(A/-.D/-.I/-.Mc/- or mc/mc).." Robinsons p165  and
"Expression of the Abyssisian pattern may manifest itself in two ways:
- as a week striping on the legs and rings on the tail for the heterozygote Ta/ta .Mc/- or mcmc
- as the absence or reduction of these markings for the homozygote
Ta/Ta .Mc/- or mc/mc" on page 137. 
In short. Ta/Ta cats have less colour. Could tipped Persians be Ta/Ta cats?? 

If, as Robinsons says, all Chinchillas are mackerel tabbies then they must be ta/ta,  given the tabby genetics on P 136-137.
Robinsons p 172 "It is of interest that most, if not all, Burmese have the genotype for Abyssinian pattern,...". That is they are Ta/Ta, or low colour/striping. (We know from plate 7and 8 not all and that there is an Sp in the works.)

All  F1 Burmillas would be heterzygous for Ta and have increased marking. Latter generations could be Ta/Ta.
We therefore suppose all true "supertips" are Ta/Ta, 
GReat idea but it doesn't explain Christian 'cause we already said he was a mackeral tabby. AND  Christian produced a spotted!! he has to be ta/ta.

We wonder what the difference in colour/pattern would be in a "Ta/ta Burmese" to a Ta/Ta Burmese.  (See plate 32)
Everything we see in does not agree or disagree with the Robinsons statement above re differences between homo/heterzygous Ta cats. We suggest something else is going on.
We are thinking that there are possibly 2 wide band genes, one a dominant and one a recessive that will give this superwide band  when combined!!  Or is it that there is a difference between hetero and homozygous wide band?? We know this can not be the case as her father is heterzygous wb. Comments anyone?
We now think that there may be a recessive super wide band gene  (swb/swb is what we will call it). We will try to track it. It my be somethig that only operates with Wb -  but we shall see.

This is Leda's littermate sister, a blue, abby-ticked, narrow band. Her brother was a Champagne abby-ticked, golden narrow band. Her other brother looked like her. This information does much to prove the backgroung of the parents Odysseus and Runina. It also gives us comfort with our suppositions so far. 
Most important we now can look at breeings with O-boy and know clearly that he carries recessives. He's a prover. He is: 
and Rumena   is   A/-.B/b.cb/cb.D/d.L/-.o/o.Ta/-.I/i.Wb/wb
This girl is A/-.B/-.cb/cb.d/d.L/-.o/o.Ta/-.I/-.wb/wb.

What is clear here, is that until a cat is bred, one can not begin to know what it's genetics possibilities might be. IF a colour/pattern is missidentified it is difficult  to  correct within the rules as they presently exist. Especially if this proving happens 2-3 generations downstream from the show life.

This girl is now a breeding cat in Denmark.

This is Hebe.  She is a shaded,(Sable tipped silver) that is a agouti wide band. She appears to have less colour than most shaded cats but is not tipped. She does have double fur, our term for a thicker than usual undercoat. We need to get the microscope to sort this out. Another of those confusing /polygenic effects mentioned in conclusions (f). 

She is 
a from father
d from father
l from father
wb from father

piper  kit 3
This girl on the left is a young sable smoke female from Piper a Champagne Burmese and Pluvius a Sable Shaded Silver Burmilla. This litter did much to proove the genetics of Pluvius but is this girl who is interesting. Young smokes are often difficult to identify but as the reader  can see it is in the neck area that the smoking first becomes apparent.
Thus she is in all colour genetics similar to the Burmese with the one exception being that she is Wide band (Wb/-).
ledakits .ledakits
the litter, and the litter minus the smoke
the champagne smoke and the sable shaded

the Champagne shaded (s)

Burmilla kittens born Nov 21 2003 F +


Leda (SH Champagne Tipped Silver f3 Burmilla)
who is  A/-.B/-.cb/cb.D/-.L/-.o/o.Ta?.I/-.Wb/- and swb/swb
Ta? not visible 


 Mustang (Sable European F+ Burmese) f+ Burmilla
1 sable shaded silver female
2 champagne shaded silver females
1 champagne shaded silver male
1 champagne smoke female

note   none of kittens swb


Lola was kept for breeding
kittens  .kittens . kittens
Burmilla Kittens born Nov 23 2003 F+

Tempest (sable tortie female F2 Foreign Burmese) x Pluvius  (  SH sable shaded male   F + Burmilla) lh carrier = F + Burmillas
1 cameo male
1 sable smoke male
1 sable  male
1 sable smoke female
The smoking is distinguished by the lighter colour around the neck and will increase somewhat as the cats ages. The non smoke boy is on the right in the third photo and is genetically identical to a Burmese by way of coat colour . photos jan 10 04
A remarkable boy who's picture does not do him justice.
COLOURS they will fool you! 10/05

Horizons Claudius
We orginally had him as silver shaded, he is clearly now neither silver or shaded.
(Blue  golden)F3 Burmila male born May 18 2004 to
Maine Jellett
( Platinum European  Burmese) X Far Horizon (SH Cream Shaded Silver  F2 Burmilla) (european) -
Claudius is very "narrow band" to the point that his back is one solid colour and it is only on his tail and sides when exposed that you can see the ticking. He is a fine illustration of the colour change that the golden substrate gives to the blue resulting in that gun metal shading that is called Caramel.

He is
he is abby tabby to the point there is no barring we can see
Feb 07 Wide Band Golden
We have been confounded by this boy and his genetics for some time - given the recent breeding of his daughter with Findus commented on below we now conclude this boy is wide band and additionally superwide band
that is Wb/-, swb/swb.
Is father is certainly not wide band as he would have been a cameo, but he is also not a usual self. We therfor think he is wb/wb swbswb.

he bred his mother
that girl on the left is in fact a platinum golden narrow band ticked abbytabby
The golden really stands out and at first she was mistaken for champagne. It is the long hair shafts on the ridge of the tail and the paw pads that define the colour.

litter with Rumina

We are beginning to think that golden / inhibitor plays a larger role in the variable amount of ticking , wide band / narrow band that we see. We have yet to see a golden smoke.
Claudius has a very wide stripe down his back that is unusual (To the point of viewed from above there is no ticked areas to be seen) and additionally we shows no baring on his fore legs
Barring  10/05
Dauntless is a European Burmese  of good pedigree. He is barred. His dam was not as we saw her and she was a cream,  the sire, who we have not seen, is from Australia (as is the dam) and is  chocolate and the baring may have been unnoticed?? see pedigree

 Robinsons comments on this edition 4 page 137 2nd para.
They suggest that he would be Ta/ta.
His breeding to Spitfire and unbarred cream produced the litter seen below.
European Burmese Kittens born May 31 05 provided 3 cream females and 2 cream males. 3 of the kittens were barred and 2 were not. We take this a reasonable proof of the supposition advanced by Robinsons. we will continue to monitor
Ticking 11/05

Burmilla kittens born April 12 05
Niobe (SH Sable Tortie Shaded silver F3 Burmilla)Dauntless  a (Cream European Burmese male)= F+ Burmillas    shown above
two brothers

The question is are we looking at a banding difference due to wb or not    - - -or
to a colour reduction of the I gene

mainkits42on the left, Lavina
l21Lavina as an adult
More on golden 11/05

F4 Burmilla kittens born Feb 23 05
Maine Jellett ( Platinum European  Burmese) X Claudius (blue shaded silver )F3 Burmila male  - 

2 Platinum golden ticked Females see lavina litter
1  Platinum Self Female
1 golden ticked caramel (Blue on gold) like her sire

the golden fools you in the platinum and you see champagne  ??  do not believe this can be wide band.
The platinum is identified most clearly along the top of the tail.

Further notes 4/04/07
Lavina who is discussed below with her litter (with Findus) is one of the two platinum girls in this litter view. Maine is a platinum E Burmese. Claudius is a blue shaded silver. Main is the mother of Claudius. The wide banding is evident in his sire Far Horizon
 Lavina  is very definitely wide band. Both cats (Maine and Claudius)must carry a recessive, neither appear to be wide band. There can be no other conclusion that I can think of  other than a clearly indicated recessive response, and I believe we can now take it that our suppositions with regard to "swb" as correct.
What is of interest is that it has taken  so long to figure that out!!

Genetics of b1

I came across a great genetic resource  called Feline Color Genetics Links  and while reading links,  saw a good deal of talk about the b1 gene.  I "put out" questions as to origin and was  told "Robinson' s".  News to me so,  I looked it up and there it was on Page 139 (and page 158). Got to confess  - -it went right by me originally - - , and I thought I had that book down fairly well.

It was Colin Manning of Breeders Assistant Customer Service (UK) who identified the B1 source and also said " Isn't the 'Berrington Gene' just silver by another name?" and

and the following from Renee Weinberger

"So, here's the deal, I have four kittens (Burmese) .... 2 blues 2 platinums ... So, I sent in the DNA from
the prettiest of the 2 blues to UC-davis and it came back platinum.  Other Burmese breeders insist that the "Blue" color that I'm
looking at is a light blue.  But I know now that it is in fact a dark platinum. ...Do you believe it's a possibility that the lighter
platinums are b/bl dd instead of b/b dd.  (I could send in the dna to test this and... am tempted to.)?   The darker sibling was bb by genetic test. ...Maybe heterozygosity for cinnamon would give in between lightened colors: maybe a B/bl would be lighter than a B/b sable.  Maybe b/b1 are the lightest champagnes, and B/bl would give light blues?  What are your thoughts on the cinnamon gene possibility??"

Me,  - -  I up and shot off my mouth that cinnamon does not exist in the Burmese and technically it doesn't - - - But???

We have said we do not think Dm is valid.  see Robinsons Page 141 and above
We agree with Colin re Berrington and suggest it is another I/ versus i/i effect as is Dm.
We thought b1 was another one of these situations (I vs ii) but Robinsons makes a pretty good case for b1 and says Black is a round pigment granule,  b is a oval granule and b1 is a rod shaped granule. They site (Ozeki,1995) [ sort off] and one would assume all this has been looked by microscope as they site in other sections. Stephens also talks about granule shape, illustrates same, but does not identify "b1".
Both texts identify the associated colours Black(B) , Brown (b), and Cinnamon(b1), with b1 (Robinsons) being recessive to b which is recessive to B. There is complete dominance i.e.. a b/b1 cat has the phenotype of the [is equal in appearance to a] b/b cat.
Robinsions then "waffles". They say "brown alleles [band b1] have no effect  on yellow (Phaeomalanin)  [ the O/red cat].. or if they do, they seem to...produce.. a brighter shade".

Robinsons has two chapters that discuss color genetics  Chapter 9 Color inheritance, which we have quoted above  and Chapter 10 Genetics of color variation and breeds.
It seems that these two sections were written by different people and they did not talk to each other. However on color they seem somewhat in unison. There is a wealth of information but it has not been integrated and as such presents great difficulty.

<>Chapter 10 color is on page 157.
Therein they identify 6 basic colors: Black,  Chocolate, Cinnamon and the dilute of each Blue, Lilac and Fawn. Here begins some of the considerable confusion that exists in the cat fancies worldwide because "genetic" colours do not always match the Fancy colors.

For example:
They identify Black as "jet black. [Black cats are not jet black OR dominance is not complete Or heterozygous C/cb cats are not dominance complete. [Most likely]] But we will leave that for later except to say Ebony exists.
The writer then uses the term Chocolate having already identified the genetic term Brown in their previous chapter.  We take chocolate to be as Fancy term. They  use the term Chocolate to describe both  Aby's and Siamese / Burmese which is not the same color  Additionally they seriously confuse the issue by using the term Brown in the Burmese color description for what is a black cat.

We propose as standard the following GENETIC colour names

For the Burmese genetic black we propose the term :
Sable (a/a, B/-, cb/cb, D/-) self, black, sepia, dense.

For the genetic brown cat b/b we propose the term
Brown (a/a, b/-, C/-, D/- ) for self, brown, full color, dense
Champagne (a/a, b/-, cb/cb, D/- ) self, brown, sepia, dense
we then must consider the b1 cat identified by both Robinsons and Stephens
Cinnamon (a/a, b1/b1, C/-, D/-) self, cinnamon, full color, dense
this leaves us with
XXX  (a/a, b1/b1, cb/cb, D/-) self, cinnamon, sepia, dense
 The genetic Blue and Lilac terms mentioned above are used in the charts  of the Siamese and Burmese color variations see table 10.2 and 10.3 yet a blue as in Russian Blue is not anything like a Burmese blue, nor is it genetically the same. The same goes for  Lilac Abyssinians and Lilac Burmese
The question is what do we call these colors?  We have chosen the term
Indigo (a/a, B/-, C/-, d/d) for the "self, black, full color, dilute
Blue (a/a, B/-, cb/cb, d/d) for the self, black, sepia, dilute
If lilac is to be the for the brown dilute cat then the Burmese must use another. We chose as follows
Lilac (a/a, b/-, C/-, d/d) for the self brown, full color, dilute  (the reader should note Stephens uses the term Frost)
Platinum (a/a, b/-, cb/cb, d/d) for the self, brown, sepia, dilute

again we must consider the b1 cat identified by both Robinsons and Stephens
Fawn (a/a, b1/b1, C/-, d/d) self, cinnamon, full color, dilute
this again leaves us with
XXX  (a/a, b1/b1, cb/cb, D/-) self, cinnamon, sepia, dense

The question proposed "are the light color Burmese we see due to b1"
First Robinsons is clear, dominance is complete so only the b1/b1 could be identified.
The question then  is:  Does b1 exist in the breed pool, and if so then what?
It is fairly common knowledge that there are two kinds of dilutes  and they are often talked about as the "powder coats".
Problem is,   - - we have identified some of these "powder coats" as being I/- cats (vs i/i) cats.
So that would make at least two factors delivering the "Powder coat."
We also know that wide band (Wb)  and what we call super wide band (swb/swb) genes have an effect on I.  Wb will deliver a smoke when associated with I/-. [Please note we do not agree with Chapter 10's author on what a smoke is or the effect of Wide band and feel our conclusions are well proven.] We are not sure what these genes are doing in i/i but they could well effect what the eye might see in a self cat, especially the lighter colored varieties. Given they are generally unseen and therefor not selected they could well be random in the population - hence the identification of a  golden (red) (under)coat is a new born sepia cat.

At present we have no clear means of identifying a b1 cat in the Burmese (or Burmilla breed) pool (short of DNA testing?) or identifying by name i.e. not in the standard.  We also note it is significant that Robinsons on Page 158 says the gene is "most commonly found in the agouti form".
Also if we could identify it, we should not call it Cinnamon or Fawn as that descriptor is taken??see comments above.
We should all be very clear that the cats identified out of New Zealand as Cinnamon Burmese are very likely not genetic cinnamon  but  genetic Brown as defined above. This Full color (C) was imported into the breed when they allowed the registration of silver. see The Cranreuch Silver Burmese breeding Program In N Z.

<>In the  Red/cream (O/- )cat.
this then gives the following varieties
Agouti  or Self,
Black Brown or Cinnamon based
Dense or Sepia
Silver or Golden

That is 24 possible combinations for the Burmilla and 6 for the Burmese.
We know that self red Burmese exist with I/-. This is easy to prove by breeding one to a golden ticked Burmilla and producing silver Burmillas. Not only does this disprove the statements in Page 166 of Robinsons (Cameo red smoke) but it further proves I/- exists in the Burmese breed pool.  These Burmese are not difficult to spot due to the lack of  leg barring.

Genetics  of wide band the litter of Lavina  and Findus

lavinakitsLavina and findus1 Findus
at 1 week old
summer 06 kittenssummer 06 kittens
The kittens of summer 06 at 12 weeks
 -In the right hand photo -  bottom front (red), middle and top (torties) are Burmese along with the red boy on the right top corner.
The bottom left corner,(silver shaded posterior) the top left (sable smoke) , and the bottom right (champagne golden ticked) are Burmilla (Karma) kittens [See photo below]. All else are Burmillas from  Lavina.
1 Champagne smoke M  -  center right  head to head with the tortie  - LH photo
1 Champagne tipped silver M  - - LH photo Lh center below the red boy
1 Sable tipped silver M   - -   top right in LH photo
1 Champagne Golden Shaded M 
1 Champagne Golden Shaded F   - - the two in the center bottom LH photo between the champagne tortie and the sable smoke
1 Champagne Golden Ticked F  RH photo center bottom on top of the red boy


Two views of  champagne tipped and a sable tipped both tipped silver,
in each photo there is a champagne golden at the bottom of the three
Three goldens the center is ticked and the two others are shaded  or wide band, it may be that the "shadeds" are superwide band like their sire. a manifestation of golden???

This is the Champagne smoke boy. There is a lot of "smoke" and may be again super wide band in non agouti.

mar 07 kittens of Layla and Findus
layla findus6

ledakit 1ledakit 2ledakit 3photo at 3 days

April 22 2007
layla kits @ 6 weeksat 6 weeeks

1 Black shaded silver F,
1 Sable tipped  silver  F   - -this colour took 4 weeks to develop  and identify
1 Full expression Brown (Havanna) smoke F
1 Black ticked golden F
1 Black smoke   M

The litter does much to confirm the colour discription of Lavina above as being super wide band.
Re We had known that Findus was heterozygous Agouti as he had produced a self in one letter with an out of cattery Burmilla
We confirm he is also heterzygous silver - -  we have one confirmed golden
We also confirm he carries genetic Brown as does Layla from her dam.
havana paws  layla smoks
A review of (havanna )full expression brown  see the colour of the paws and additionally we believe she may be a smoke (possibly golden smoke)
We are now thinking that the locket may be an indicator of smoke ( wide band) and golden  - -  the golden smoke that we are missing.
That is a black (silver ) smoke boy beside her - -and we do understand super wide band is in this litter - - see tipped girl.
Neither cat has the brick nose that the remainder of the litter do.

layla and findus second litter
Feb 03/08 on the morning weigh-in
Burmilla Kittens  Born Jan 22 '08 to
Layla  (Black  F + Burmilla female)XCh Findus  ( Sable Shaded Silver short hair Burmilla male)
1 black smoke male
1 Black golden ticked male

I am very unsure of the colour of my cat. He is a blue . . . Yes, but there is something else. His legs show no clear white, his face is covered by this caramel, besides the flanks too. His saddle is almost solid. But under the tail he is silver.
In his generations was always that colour again! All judges have repeatedly said . . . It is *blue-silver-shaded*, however, to dark, solid!!!

In order to answer the question we have posted the photographs in an order to understand and the pedigree is posted at the bottom

1) Fritz   kitten in question

2)  Kathe daughter from my Burmilla Angel and my European Burmese Cream Cracker.

 A silver (tortie)girl

3)kitten in question

4) Kathe and  Fritz

fritzand sister
5) Kathe and  Fritz
kitten in question
kitten in question

Flame, the father of Fritz

from pedigree he is
red silver shaded

Sire Miamber Silver Khye, Black silver shaded Burmilla, A-B-D-I-oss--ww
Dame  Bnfire Silver Crocus, red silver shaded Burmi;la

genetically we see him as (using our nomenclature)
A-,B-, Ccb?, Dd?, Ii, ll, Ox, Ta-, Wb-, swbswb
that is

Agouti  as u say - 
probable homozygous
Black,  minor possibility of b from Cassanova
Full colour  - good possiblity of cb from Fleetwood mac who had to be cbcb
Dense colour 
heterozygous,  recessive from offspring - - d from dame and her lines
Silver , 
heterozygous,  recessive from offspring and coming from Fleetwood Mac on both sides of pedigree additionally Silver Crocus (his Dam) had to be Ii
Short hair  likely homozygous
Red from discriptor
Abby tabby  probable homozygous
Wide band 
probable homozygous
Superwide band,  (speculated ) homozygous recessive

salome dee

Salome Dee Seal tortie silver shaded

Salome, the mother of  Fritz.

We are unclear as to what Seal is. we assume genetic black and pointing as in B-,cbcb

genetically we see her as (using our nomenclature)
A-,Bb, cbcb, Dd, Ii, ll, Oo, Ta-, Wb-, swbswb
that is
Agouti from the brick nose
probable homozygous
Black, heterozygous  - -recessive from dam
Burmese sepia from discriptor as seal homozygous recessive
Dense colour  heterozygous,  recessive from sire
Silver , 
heterozygous,  recessive from offspring and coming from Fleetwood Mac on both sides of pedigree
Short hair  likely homozygous
Red tortie  from discriptor
Abby tabby  probable homozygous
Wide band 
probable homozygous
Superwide band,  (speculated ) homozygous recessive  and giving this tipped cat

The grandmother from Fritz . . . Landon's Smaragde

Perhaps, the grandmother of Fritz (Landon's Smaragde) are golden.

Chocolate Silver shaded
(A-bbD-I-ss--ww) from pedigree

We agree the tarnishing around the nose and the off the side of the eye is curious.
However there is nothing within the pedigrees that would clearly indicate golden in the line.
 note our Thamakan source boy Findus has produced a golden so the golden can be carried a long way.

flame sister
A sister (from) of the father

Mother seal-tortie-silver shaded. Father red-silver-shaded. He has golden in the pedigree!!! The paw colour from Fritz is blue. And now . . . The colour along the top of the ridge is blue!!! And the tail oversize too. Perhaps, the approach is a mouse grey. But only at these points and over the top of the head we found a solid colour. Under the tail I have had a look with a whit paper . . . It is not whit. Over the whole cat is a cream glimmer. You can seen this of the photo with my another cat Käthe (The photo with the two on the scratching). Yes, I mean he is golden. But rest assured I can only upon with a mating with a golden. Perhaps it is only strong Rufismus (Oh sorry, I don't know . . . This is the right word in English!!!). I hope you know what I mean.
Moondiamond's Burma und Burmilla
             Birgit Ellermann

1) it is not totally clear to me as to the nomenclature that is being used on the pedigree provided with regard to the genetics.
a blue tortie is described as  - - aaB-cbcbddiiss--ww
and a red silver shaded is described as A-B-D-I-OOss--ww
it would therefore be our understanding that
A is Agouti, aa is self or non agouti
B is Black, bb is genetic Brown
C is not used, for full expression? colour but cbcb is Burmese restriction of Sepia
D is normal colour distribution and dd is dilute (smetimes called maltese gene)  as is a blue or cream cat
I is Inhibitor /silver and ii is golden
O is genetic Red Oo is tortie in females and  o is a non red male   Note  we do not understand why it is not noted in the pedigree info of Flame.

ss  --  and ww  - - I do not understand.
It is however  very interesting that these breeders are attempting to further define colour by genetics. That is great.

2) Ann and I agree that the kitten Fritz is blue/golden, and we are  quite sure of that .  - - - Is that possible??
He is From
Sire  A-,B-, Ccb?, Dd?, Ii, ll, Ox, Ta-, Wb-, swbswb
Dame  A-,Bb, cbcb, Dd, Ii, ll, Oo, Ta-, Wb-, swbswb
and is therefore
A-,Bb?,Ccb?,dd, ii, ll, ox, TaTa (probable), WbWb (probable), and swbswb.

A-  that  is Agouti   - -no question  he may well be AA  that is homozygous agouti vice A/a

B- that is genetic Black - - his mother from the pedigree would be Bb, his sire has genetic brown 3 generations back and you confirm the paw pads as blue  it is unlikely he is  genetic Brown - -  but there is a possibility  making him lilac???

C- this is the nomencalture I use for full colour   your pedigree says the mother is seal this would suggest to me that she is sepia  --genetic cbcb but I am unsure of how this term is defined ??? by you.    it would appear unlikely he is sepia (cbcb) from the photo   it is usually seen as a darkening around the ears and forhead but given that this is difficult to tell in a tipped or shaded cat,  - - it is possible, - additionally the dilutes also render this determination more difficult    - -in Canada we call a non sepia/ dilute /black indigo  and a sepia/ dilute/ black - -   Blue

dd   dilute - this has to mean that both parents carry d.   Salone does from her sire. Flame would have it from Fleetwood Mac and Silver Crocus so both cats are Dd and can be said to carry dilute.

ii   golden again both cats must carry i . Bellabony Fleetwood Mac is on both sides of the pedigree and he has i from Mary who is ii. Silver Crocus would also carry golden

ll  shorthair

ox not red

Ta  Abby tabby most likely homozygous

Wb  wideband most likely homozygous

swbswb super wide band homozygous recessive -  as a point of interest   (this genetics we speculate upon and) as this is recessive it is most desirable to keep in the breeding lines.

We do have one question  - - in Germany is a Burmilla allowed to be Golden and still be called a Burmilla?? - -not a problem for us in CCA.

With regard to golden and your boy we have the identical colouration in Lavina see super wide band  - proof the daughter of Claudius.
see also Bella Donna the daughter of Lavina.
Yes the judges argue with us and look at the silver in the underfur.  It is difficult to get them to see but the best way is to do as you and done by showing the silver and golden side by side or have a photo side by side. The use of paper is also a very good idea.

Remember genetics containing  Dilution, Sepia, Brown and Inhibitor all work to reduce intensity in the (C) colour genetics by 1) changing the colour dot distribution 2)  making it  temperature sensitive, 3) changing the colour dot shape, 4) destroying ?? the colour itself. Wide banding changes the frequency of the banding process and so also effects a colour change.
 Golden in a Dilute, Sepia and Brown (lilac)  is certainly difficult to differentiate from silver.

Stick to your guns. You are correct.

and good luck

this is a joined scan

Is this a smoke?? It depends on how the reader defines Smoking. We do not think it is. We understand it to be a  Non agouti,  black, burmese pointed, non dilute, silver  narrow band (a/a, B/-, cb/cb, D/-, I/- .... wb/wb. )
all photos of the Boy are 300 dpi and can be increased in size without distortion.

the dame

Ch. Horizons Cloud

F3 Burmilla (long hair sable female) born July 7 04
(full expression Lilac female F3 Burmilla Lh Carrier) X
 Pluvius  (  SH (silver) sable shaded  male   F + Burmilla [LH Carrier]) -

cloud kit

early kitten photos 2 days old
the sire
midnite3the sire
Horizons Midnite
Black F4 Burmilla male born  April 17 06
Soliloquay (full expression LH Sable Tortie F3 X
  Constitution  (Sable European Burmese male)  LH carrier 
cloudkit22 feb08

Burmilla Kittens Born Dec 22 07 to
X Midnite Ebony(  Black)Burmilla male
1 Black/ Ebony male shorthair
1  Indigo/ full express blue male longhair - -  Stirling
2 Champagne Lh females
2 Sable males 1 might be Lh

photo at 8 weeks
the boy
the boy at 20 weeks
he was always noted as being a lighter sable than his brother.
back stroke on lower back
his coat
his coat
back stroke on middle back no flash
back stroke the head
the head
the normal head that clearly shows the Burmese pointing.
belly and paws
belly and paws they are clearly sable paws

<>They also say when talking of Blue that "dilution  ..(is) caused by the clumping of melanin granules in the hair shaft. This results in colorless areas of the hair shaft, allowing more light to pass through the hair and thus lightening the colour."

Researching smoke and wide band

Wikipedia  June 1108-
Smoke is the name given to the cat colour in which the bottom eighth of each hair is white or creamy-white, with the rest of the hair being a solid colour. Genetically this colour is a non-agouti cat with the dominant inhibitor gene; a non-agouti version of the silver tabby.
Smoke cats will look solid coloured until they move, when the white undercoat becomes apparent. It is mostly found in pedigreed cats (especially longhair breeds) but also present in some domestic longhaired cats.

Smoke - Often difficult to tell from solid color kittens except that smokes sometimes have white around the eyes and a paler stomach. May take some months to tell which kittens will be smoke because the full coat color is sometimes not seen until the adult coat comes in at 2 years. Undercoat begins to show at 3 weeks, and by 6-8 weeks have a mottled look.

∑ 1/8 of hair length colored at tip - chinchilla and shell
∑ 1/4 of hair length colored at tip - all shaded
∑ 1/2 of hair length colored at tip - all smoke
-----If you want to breed smokes the first thing you need to understand is that to produce smoke kittens one of the parents must be a shaded or a smoke cat. You cannot get a smoke out of two solid color cats, even if both of their parents were shadeds! Always remember, too, that a blue smoke must have blue nose leather and paw pads: only a black smoke will have black nose leather and paw pads-----

Copyright 2003-2006, S Hartwell
Discusses tarnished silvers, Wide banding, and solid colour cats that are in fact
Persian Cats - A Brief Smoke Color History
By Connie Limon
The wonderful world of the smoke Persian
(by Patricia Lichtenberg, Palmetto cattery; published in the CFA Almanac, June 1995)

“I have worked with the smokes for 27 years, and I love them as much today as I did in 1970, when I saw my first black smoke in a show hall. In all of my years of breeding and showing smokes, I have never made a solid color breeding. One of the pair has always been a smoke. In the last 12 years, most of my kittens have come from smoke to smoke breedings. Even with so many smokes on my pedigrees I still have solid color kittens occasionally. Over the years I have used solid color cats for out crossing, the two most notable being, GC Marhei's Light Up My Life of Palmetto and GC Purrlan Eclectic of Kiasik. All of their offspring that I kept always went back to one of my smoke males, however.---
I have often been told that judges do not understand smokes, especially the kittens which are in "reverse coat." I personally do not find this to be true, and have never been penalized for this in the show ring.
hope that you will enjoy to view and get to know the various colours and beauty of
Smoke, Shaded Silver & Chinchilla, Cameo, and Silver Tabby!
These pages were initially put together in May 2001, for a FIFe-judges seminar.
More likely, there are polygenes (Wide Band genes, plural) which affect the undercoat width rather than a single Wideband gene. THE GENETICS OF SPOTTED CATS ... - 46k - Cached - Similar pages

Genetics of Coat Colour Inheritance - Illustrated online color predictor for black, red and pointed series.
Practical Color and Coat Length Genetics for Abyssinian and Somali Breeders

Understanding Snows - Genetics of the snow colors in the Bengal. <>
2. "I think one of my kittens is a silver, but neither parent is silver, how can this be?"
It can't.  If you have truly gotten a silver in a litter with no silver parents, you've got to really look those parents over.  One of them IS silver or a silvered Lynx or a silvered something.  Sometimes a silver will have enough "tarnish" to look like a bad brown spotted (not very rufoused)
google  - -genetic testing cats
The Lyons' Den Feline Genome Project
The Feline Genome Project is an effort to develop feline specific genetic tools and resources to improve feline and human health. The effort promotes the interaction of feline researchers, from various disciplines, to advance the genetics of the domestic cat. Fast, Affordable Feline DNA Testing Services is a cooperative effort by the Cat Fanciers' Association, Texas A&M University Animal Genetics Laboratory, and DNA Diagnostics, ... - 8k - Cached - Similar pages

"however, breeding studies appear to contradict this in favour of a more polygenetic model that possibly acts by increasing the amount of agouti protein produced in the melanocytes".   Other modifying genes are also mentioned as being involved in clearing the coat of markings.  If you've not already read Carol Johnson's (no relation!) article,  I'm sure you'd find it very interesting.    I think she is definitely on the right track.
click on resources, then scroll down to "Genetics of Shaded Silvers"

Our review of
Genetics of the shaded American Shorthair
(and Striped Tabbies too!!!)
By Carol W. Johnson, DVM, PhD

The above noted web age is very good and provides considerable additional information to that of Robinsons although I believe it to be of an earlier version to that of Robinsons 4ht edition.
Carol W. Johnson is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Doctor of Veterinary Pathology, Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathology, and a board member of the National American Shorthair Club. and this article is from her web site  "Resources" section "The Genetics of Shaded Silvers."

We have used a table format and numbered each paragraph. Our comments are related to the  adjoining paragraph. The term "Wideband" is taken from Robinsons and is also used by Stephens. For the recessive of that (wbwb) we use the term "narrowband" and see that Dr. Johnson also uses that term. The other gene we discuss is Superwideband (swbswb) and is a term of our making, lacking any other.  We could have used "Tipping" but felt that as the characteristic was so allied with wideband we went with it.
Our next objective is to DNA test strategic cats. This should prove or disprove our case.
We do not suppose to have it all correct, or to understand the biochemistry and ontogenetic  processes.  We do strive to have some predictability of breeding outcomes.

the article
any highlighting linking or underlining is ours
our comments
There had been much controversy concerning the genetics of unpatterned tabbies in the American Shorthair (ASH) breed. In Figures 1a and 1b, are two female kittens about 4 months old. These half-sisters were born 2 weeks apart. Neither is the outcross of another breed. The sire of both kittens is a purebred shaded silver male: GC, GP Melodygarden Stargazer. The dam of the kitten in Figure 1a was a shaded cameo female (CH, PR Melodygarden Tidy Tips) and this is a kitten picture of GC Melodygarden Northern Lights, CFA's first grand champion shaded tortoiseshell ASH. The dam of the kitten in Figure 1b is CH Solmer Ophelia of Stedam, a gold-eyed white masking brown-patched tabby. This kitten was registered as a silver ticked tabby in 1996 before CFA declared that no ASH ticked tabbies were registerable in the breed. Kittens of this coloration naturally arise when a clear shaded cat, regardless of lineage or color is crossed with a classic tabby or a solid masking classic tabby.
We have no known date of posting. the reader will note from the references that the most recent is 1999.

11.gif 12.gif
13.gif 14.gif
1a. Shaded tortie 4 mo kitten 1b. 'Ticked' tabby 4 mo kitten

Figure 1 - These kittens share the same sire, a shaded American Shorthair.
re highlighted in tile 1  based on our understanding
This is a dominance statement.  If Wide band exists and the shaded cats is Wide band (Wb/Wb)then kitten b must be an example of wide band cat.

We go out on a limb here and   assume here that "solid masked tabby" is clearly more marked, coloured, and ticked that the kitten1b.
We then go the the internet and here is what we got.
americanshorthair/images.jpeg  - - bingo!!

1b  is similar to Burmilla F1.

As the kitten
It is  more marked that one parent (the tabby) and less than the other (shaded parent), therefore there is at a second gene and we suggest the following
shaded cat is Wb/-, swb/swb
and the tabby is wb/wb  Swb/-.
delivering Wb/wb, Swb/swb

swb = super wide band and recessive
The purpose of this article is to describe the genetics that make up the shaded ASH pattern based on actual breedings. It not based on theoretical of "how it is thought to be or ought to be" but rather "how it is." The same genetics have been consistent with 6 lines of shaded cats crossed with classic tabbies from several different lines. Although written from experience with shaded American Shorthairs, the genetics are applicable to other breeds and many of the same genes work in nonshaded patterns, such as the classic tabby pattern. This manuscript is meant to provide the readership with information about to the genetic inheritance of the shaded pattern and to show the relationship of shaded and unpatterned tabbies with stripes. Because the genetics are similar in other breeds and hopefully the readers will find the information useful regardless of breed or color.
This comment while understandable and often repeated, caused us a great deal of difficulty. It is "the Standard" vs "genetics". It is our view that if the genetics are incorrectly described then errors compound themselves.

U this would suggest the lines are largely homozygous and the "shaded males are Wb/Wb swb/swb and the tabbies are wbwb, SwbSwb

Before diving into the genetics, a short history of the shaded ASH pattern is helpful. The history of the shaded ASH has been more extensively reviewed elsewhere [1, 2]. The shaded silver is one of the oldest ASH colors. In 1913, a shaded chinchilla female was accepted for CFA registration as a "Domestic Shorthair", a breed designation that later gave rise to both American and British Shorthairs [3] The first silver shaded ASH competed for championship in 1951. Cameo and shell cameo shaded ASH were accepted for championship in 1971 and in 1993, other colors including shaded blue, cream, tortoiseshell, dilute tortoiseshell and their chinchilla/shell counterparts were accepted. Non-silver shaded ASH (such as shaded golden) are currently not recognized for championship. "Ticked" tabby ASH were originally accepted as AOV, but later declared a disqualifier in 1993. They continued to be accepted for registration as AOV by CFA until about 1996.

1) That would be in our view a Wb/-, swb/swb cat.
2)  Ox ,OO, Oo cats The reds and torties. and d/d of that = Cream
3) B/-, D/- Black,
B/- , d/d Blue

4) A/- i/i, wbwb, Swb/-  cats are disqualified

Currently, the shaded silver ASH is the 3rd most popular color registered with CFA, surpassed only by silver and brown tabbies. The color peaked in popularity in the late 1970's then declined markedly in the 1980s. One contributing factor was that shaded ASH breeders tended to breed shaded-to-shaded to produce good color, but the cats became inbred and the type did not keep up with the slow, but constant refinements necessary to be competitive in the show ring. As a result, the shaded ASH became less competitive at the shows and sometimes got a reputation for having poor dispositions, genetic defects, and poor reproductive performance.
recessive to recessive  same old story  - -clearly one of the problems that will arise with Burmilla to Burmilla breedings without the return to the Burmese at regular intervals.

what constant refinements are, or could be, needed or justified??
The shaded color pattern is experiencing a comeback in the 1990s. Key to this comeback is a need to breed shaded ASH to tabby ASH, because there are insufficient shaded ASH lines to be genetically viable. Also an understanding of the genetics behind the shaded color is essential to being able to utilize tabbies in a shaded ASH program. Beginning with some of the earliest shaded ASH breedings there has been an impression that it is hard to nearly impossible to get the color back after outcrossing with tabbies or other colors. Knowledge of the genetics behind the shaded and classic tabby patterns helps explain why it takes between 2 and 4 generations to get the color back following a shaded to tabby breeding.
yes, -  dealing with a triple factor, one of which is recessive, can be very difficult with the possibility of loosing sight of it (the necessary recessive) especially when there does not appear to be any ability to recognize Swb in the golden ticked cat

I/I, Wb/Wb, swb/swb
i/i wb/wb, Swb Swb
delivers I/i Wb/wb Swb/swb as in figure 1b

probability is 1 in 2x2x2 or 1in 8 or about 12%. of getting back to the desired
as is said it will not happen in the first generation

To follow the genetics, the reader must have an open mind and be willing to drop some of the preexisting ideas or paradigms regarding "color" inheritance. Cat "colors" are best described in terms of the small independent attributes that are inherited. For example, a silver tabby can be genetically defined as: agouti (tabby), classic pattern, black (eumelanin), silver inhibitor gene, and a moderate undercoat width. A cameo tabby is genetically similar to a silver tabby except the black (eumelanin) pigment is replaced by a red (phaeomelanin) pigment. A black smoke differs from a silver tabby only that it has the non-agouti gene, etc.
agouti (tabby), classic pattern, black (eumelanin), silver inhibitor gene,
A/-, ta/ta, mcmc, B/-, I/-.
the classic pattern we will discuss later -here is a synopsis

we are not sure what moderate undercoat width means

Cameo relates to a O cat that is tipped.  Given that Phaeomelanin is much more subject to colour reduction by I (inhibitor)  a  Cameo cat can well be not shaded and not agouti , the breeder/ judge would not be able to differentiate and the cat would not breed true.
Smoke in this context is a a/a cat ie.
a/a, ta/ta, mcmc, B/-, I/-.
The vocabulary for several color attributes have never before been defined so the terms are lacking while other terms may mean different things to different people. For example, the terms "ticked" or "ticking" means something different to different people. For example, in Abyssinians, the term "ticked" conjures up a cat that has multiply banded hairs and no striping anywhere, while in Orientals the same term conjure up a cat that is noted for having stripes on the head, neck, legs, and tail and the banding on the hairs is not defined. American Shorthair breeders may use "ticking" to refer to the intermixing of hairs in the dark and light striped areas on a classic tabby. To provide a common ground, I have either selected a single definition where several have previously existed, or have invented vocabulary where it has previously not existed.
The never ending problem of these kinds of discussion!!
A/- cats are agouti and have brick noses.(?)
a/a cats are non agouti
A/- Ta/- are abbytabby in our book
A/- , ta/ta, Mc/- are mackeral tabbys
A/-, ta/ta mcmc are classic tabbys
here is a synopsis

a Smoke is within common usage a aa, I/- cat.
there is vast amounts of comment in the literature here and elsewhere that not all aa, I/- cats  appear as smokes.
Therefore we will define a smoke as a non agouti wide band cat.
aa, Wb/-   that can be either I/ or ii.

A shaded cat regardless of breed is defined by overall appearance, not by genetics. "Shaded" is a pattern and not a color. Color refers to pigment and may be black (eumelanin), red (phaeomelanin), blue (dilute eumelanin), etc. Shaded ASH may be black-silver (silver shaded), red-silver (cameo shaded), blue-silver (dilute shaded), black non-silver (shaded golden), or other colors. Patterns define where color is present and typical patterns may be classic or mackerel tabby, non-agouti, or unpatterned.
We do not agree. as commented above, standards must follow genetics. To do otherwise invites chaos.
We suggest there are two
major levels of colour reduction
 wide band Wb/- and the
 superwide band  swb operating as noted above.
other minor colour reduction genes must also be taken into account
they are
the sepia cb and cs genes vice C,
the dilutes/malteseing genes dd vice D,
 bb vice B  -genetic brown versus black,
and the O genes as mentioned above in comment tile 7
this is the first time "Unpatterned " is used and refers to Ta/- cats see
The best definition of a shaded pattern is one in which the hairs are tipped with color and the overall appearance is of a cat without striping, slightly darker along the top midline and shading to untipped (white on a silver shaded) on the belly. A silver tabby shorthair has a white undercoat, but is not a shaded cat because it has a striped pattern on the torso. The presence of a the silver inhibitor gene (described in more later on) does not define a shaded cat, nor is it necessary for a shaded, as in the example of shaded golden Persians. The perfect shaded silver shorthair has black tipped hairs with a white (silver) undercoat that extends at least 1/2 the way to the tip [4], unbarred legs, neck and tail, a white underbelly and insides of the legs. Shaded and chinchilla patterns are grouped together as shaded cats in this paper, since the difference between the shaded and chinchilla cats varies only in one pattern attribute, the width of the white undercoat. Evidence of a pattern or barring on the legs, neck, and tail or, worse, on the body is effectively penalized in every breed, even when not specifically prohibited in the certain breed standards, such as the ASH standard.
this  appears  to be an argument for wideband

we propose for the Burmilla a genetic based designation
ticked, wb/wb, Swb ?
shaded, Wb/-, Swb/-
tipped Wb/- swbswb
At this time we suggest swb is epistatic and unvisable without Wb
Levels of banding are variable in relationship to those above mentioned colour reduction genes silver, brown, maltese/dilute, and sepiaand should not be made by measurement.

Robinsens Page 137 suggests leg banding as a function of heterozygous  - Ta/ta
We suggest the ideal Burmilla is as per the Burmese  - -a Ta/Ta cat.

Closely related to the shaded shorthairs are "ticked tabbies". Both cats lack stripes on the body, but a ticked tabby has stripes on at least 2 of the following: head, neck, legs, or tail. As in shaded, the pattern is defined by overall appearance of the cat, not by the tipping of the hair. The hairs maybe tipped or multiply banded. Generally, a ticked tabby appears darker than a shaded silver for one of three reasons: the hair banding frequency is even, the hair banding frequency is short giving the hairs multiple bands, or the color travels far down the hair shaft. A moderately dark, distinctly-marked 4 month old silver "ticked" tabby kitten is pictured in Figure 1b. I prefer to use the term "unstriped or unpatterned tabby" to describe shaded and "ticked" patterned cats combined.

Confusing and unnecessary
unpatterned is herein used for a Ta/- cat and abbytabby if you will. A shaded is a wide band tipped
Wb/- swbswb. two clearly different terms???

Shaded genetics may differ with coat length

The genetics governing mackerel and classic patterns are relatively simple and largely involve a single gene, Tm_ (T- has also been used for mackerel) or tbtb respectively. Shaded genetics are considerably more complicated. Regardless of breed, the genetics behind the shaded pattern is composed of many genes working in concert. Although the overall appearances of shaded patterned cats are quite similar from breed to breed, the genetics behind the longhair breeds and shorthaired shaded shorthairs can be slightly different.

My understanding of this para is that it is considerably out of date.

Agreed   we see two as we have outlined above wb and swb

not agreed  - we  see the pattern genetics as the same and as pointed out in this document (see tile 14) and others the undercoat fur of a longhair will play some tricks on the eye
Shaded shorthair cats do not have the luxury of having a long coat to obscure a pattern. Although some "shaded" shorthairs may have a classic or mackerel tabby pattern at birth, remnants of the pattern generally are apparent throughout life and these cats are generally considered to have a pattern fault that requires most to be shown as tabbies, if shown at all. The clearest ASH and OSH are unstriped or unpatterned tabbies. Unpatterned tabbies are not restricted to the ASH or OSH breeds. They are a fundamental pattern also found in other breeds including Abyssinians, Singapuras, Siamese, Burmese, and more rarely in Persians and Russian Blues. The minimal requirements to produce a shaded ASH are the following attributes: agouti gene, silver inhibitor gene (ASH non-silver inhibitor cats are not recognized), the undercoat width genes (widebanding genes), genes that affect the number of bands of color on each hair, and genes that cause an unstriped body type. Other minor genes are important in producing the pale sparkling appearance and to clear up the residual striping on both the torso and extremities. read A/-, Ta/-.  tabby or abbytabby

A/-, I/, Wb/- and Ta/-
anothe case for wideband

??? see also comment re Robinsens page 137 in tile 10
The shaded pattern in Persians appears to differ slightly from shaded shorthairs in only two attributes: 1) They occasionally can be non-agouti (a very light version of smoke), although this appears to be relatively rare; and 2) they are more usually born striped (usually classic or mackerel tabby) than unpatterned. Because of the long hair coat, they can afford more variability than can shaded shorthairs.

Otherwise, the genetics behind the color patterns of the Persians and shorthaired breeds are very similar.
A/- tata, Mc/- or mcmc
agouti, abbytabby not, mackeral or classic

this does not agree with the green comments in tile 12


Shaded ASH are agouti (tabby) patterned - the agouti gene, A_

All silver shaded ASH cats are genetically agouti or "tabby-patterned cats". Normally shaded shorthair cats are not a variant of the non-agouti (black smoke) pattern as had been suggested by early publications [3]. Although some shaded Persians are probably non-agouti, in shorthaired cats, even non-agouti (black smoke) cats with a very wide silver undercoat tend to have a black mask that betrays the true color. The tabby nature of the shaded can be seen in the following attributes: shaded ASH cats have pigmentation around the eye (eg black "eyeliner" in a shaded silver) surrounded by a white (silver) zone, pigmented lips, a brick red or pink nose, colored paw pads, and frequently colored hair the back of the feet. Genetically, however, the unpatterned cats carry either classic or mackerel or both traits "masked" by the unpatterned tabby pattern.

As above
all Agouti cats are "tabby"
there are "abbytabbys", mackeral tabbies and classic tabbies and there are spotted tabbies that are subs of the mackeral and classic  but they do not appear to be in play here althought they have appeared in the Burmilla coming from Burmese breedings.
The agouti gene (A_) is a dominant gene that allows the hairs to be banded so the cat appears as a tabby (Figure 2). The converse gene, the non-agouti recessive mutation (aa), causes the banding to disappear as melanin is over produced. An example of an agouti cat is a brown tabby and its non-agouti converse is a solid black. We could not find a figure 2

this would be a "standards" term not a genetic term. A brown tabby might be in genetic terms 
agouti, Brown, full colour, not dilute, abby[tabby]. (A/-, bb, C/- D/-,  Ta/-)
The term non-agouti is a misnomer - the cats still carry the genes for hair banding and because of this, often a faint tabby pattern can be seen on solid black cats. The agouti gene is still somewhat operative, but melanin synthesis remains hyperactive despite the activity of the gene. The terms "melanistic" or "hypermelanistic" are probably better terms than non-agouti. Agouti and non-agouti hairs are depicted in Figure 2. Most of the molecular knowledge of the agouti gene has been extrapolated from mice. In wild type brown agouti mice, the agouti gene encodes an inhibitory protein, the agouti protein and is responsible for the light banded areas of the hair. When a new hair is growing, the melanocytes start laying down eumelanin (black pigment) producing a black band. interesting

We could not find a figure 2
Microscopically, the hairs look coated with dense black pigment. The agouti protein is produced at the same time and when concentrations reach a certain high level, the agouti protein causes eumelanin to be down-regulated (turned down or off) and replaced with phaeomelanin, producing a brown pigment band in the case of a brown tabby. Microscopically, the phaeomelanin is less dense and has a reddish cast. After a while the agouti protein itself becomes down-regulated and eumelanin synthesis resumes. The result is a new black band. The turning off an on is more or less efficient and although the bands look fairly sharp to the eye, microscopically switch from eumelanin to phaeomelanin sputters a bit so the boundaries are somewhat indistinct. The hair in Figure 2 is divided into two areas, the colored tip and an area, I will refer to as the "undercoat width" because in cats, these two areas act as if they are regulated by different genes that are inherited separately. The undercoat width genes are described in more detail later in this paper. phaeomelanin, is generally referred to as orange  -  as in a O type  Burmese tht are called   "red "cats or Cream as in the dd Dilute/maltesed form.
see G Stephens edit 2 page15 and Robinsons edit 4 p 143

This is, I think, a poor use of terms See Robinsons page 127 --  undercoat is a term used for down  or wool hair.
Figure 3 - Hairbanding in Classic Tabby
this is good presentation.
See Robinsons  edit 4 Page 136
 .. cats "have a second system of pigmentation that other species lack - - interspersed throughout this agouti coat. This striping is caused by a marked reduction in the amount of agouti protein receptors or agouti protein itself in certain areas of the skin, eliminating the eumelanin to phaeomaelanin shift"

The agouti gene probably works similarly in cats and brown tabbies appear to produce both eumelanin and phaeomelanin similar to the wild type agouti mouse. However, agouti mice are stripeless and mouse genetics are unable to explain how stripes occur in cats. Stripes are remarkable because they represent variable expression of the agouti gene. Both the light and the dark striped areas have multiply banded hair, but the banding frequency (discussed later) varies in these sites. In a classic tabby, in the black stripes areas the hair follicles are coordinated to produce hairs with a black (eumelanin) tip followed by a brown (phaeomelanin) band in the undercoat in the case of a brown tabby or no melanin in the case of a silver tabby (Figure 3). In the light areas, the hair follicles collaborate to form a different banding pattern with shorter pigmented tips and higher banding frequency. Here, the hairs are multiply banded, usually black, light, black followed by a light undercoat. As one moves from the back to the belly, the frequency and length of the colored bands decreases. see comments above

re undercoat  see comments linked

one would wonder if wideband is disruption of this secondary pattern so that the whole body  has  reduced receptors.  a modification of the modification or whatnot??
Figure 4 - Hairbanding in Silver Shaded
The drawing in Figure 4 shows a similar change in a shaded silver cat, though as will be discussed in a later section, the hairs often are not evenly banded. Exactly how stripes are molecularly regulated so the dark and light stripe areas are distinct is not clear. In shaded shorthairs, stripes are suppressed so a shaded shorthair appears similar to an agouti mouse.

Silvery appearance - the Silver Inhibitor Gene, I_

In the ASH breed, all shaded cats are required to have a silver inhibitor genes (I_) and currently shaded cats lacking the silver inhibitor gene (such as shaded goldens) are not recognized for championship in the breed. The silver inhibitor gene is dominant and the genetics have been recently reviewed by Heather Lorimer [5]. The term "silver" refers to the white banded areas of the hair, not to the pigmented areas, such as the black tip on a silver shaded or classic tabby. Silver classic tabbies are more accurately described as black-silver tabbies, as they are in some non-CFA registries. A cameo tabby is more accurately described as a red-silver tabby, a pewter tabby a blue-silver tabby, etc.
Cats can be shaded (read wideband) in both silver (I/-) and golden (ii)

What is Pewter
 CFA Breed Standard: American Shorthair
Warm fawn overtones or patina over the whole. Eye color: brilliant gold. BLUE SILVER PATCHED TABBY (Pewter Patched Tabby): ... BLUE SILVER TABBY (Pewter Tabby): undercoat white
22 Apr 2007 20:39:55
In the purest form, silver differs from white predominantly by mechanism. In white cats, either the melanocytes (the cells that make the pigment), are lacking because they failed to migrate to the white areas of the coat (for example, in the case of the dominant white gene or the white spotting gene) or the melanin biochemistry is abnormal and can't be made (as in the case of some of rarer recessive whites). The lack of melanin is called amelanotic and a cartoon of a white hair is seen in Figure 5.
no fig. 5
In silver tabbies, the melanocytes can produce melanin normal for that color, but expression is down-regulated to severely decrease or stop melanin production in the areas of the hair that would normally be colored phaeomelanin in a brown tabby. In a silver tabby, these areas appear white as seen in Figure 5. Microscopically, the melanin does not just turn off, but may sputter a bit and low levels of melanin may be present even in areas that appear white to the eye. Because of the residual melanin, the undercoat should be technically described as silvered, not white. However, because of common use in breed standards, a silvered undercoat will be referred to as "white". If an inhibitor gene is unable to completely block phaeomelanin, the resulting cat appears bronzed or "tarnished".
no fig. 5

Please note
The silver inhibitor gene has a slightly different effect in a non-agouti cat. As seen in the last drawing in Figure 5, the silver inhibitor gene does not affect the tip of the hair, but rather only lightens the undercoatarea. If the inhibitor gene is unable to completely block residual eumelanin production, the undercoat appears gray, a common problem in some black smoke cats.

Heather Lorimer has suggested that the silver inhibitor gene may and may be a mutation of the gene responsible for turning the phaeomelanin (brown pigment) off and on. As she has noted, the silver inhibitor gene can have a more profound effect on red (sex-linked orange gene) than it does on black pigment in all breeds. Because of this complexity, this paper deals predominantly with black pigmented (shaded silver) cats. The effect of the silver gene in combination with the red can be exaggerated.

 read "smoke" (aa, I/-) in their terms

no fig. 5

Is this the
golden smoke (aa, ii, Wb/-) in our terms    - -we think so

as we have noted
in tile above
To Stripe or Not to Stripe - the major unpatterned tabby gene, U_

Although much has been made about distinguishing between shaded cats that are born without a tabby pattern from those born with a tabby pattern, the two types are genetically similar and differ only in gene or gene cluster that defines stripes or no-stripes on the body. Traditionally, tabby cats are thought of as cats with stripes. There are two genetically distinct patterned tabbies: classic and mackerel tabbies. Spotted tabbies are variants of mackerel or classic tabbies and have other genes (spotting genes) that influence the mackerel or classic patterns to break into spots. Unpatterned shorthair tabbies without stripes on the body have traditionally been divided into shaded cats and "ticked" tabbies.

What follows in tiles 27 -35 is  Dr. Johnson's version of "tabby" genetics. That is the inheritance of agouti cats ( A/-) that are abbytabby (our word) mackeral tabby and classic tabby.
We see this as out of date based on Robinsons edit 4 pages 136 and 137.
and our review of same
 We clearly view Robinson's as the more recent document based on references to Lorimer (private conversations).

We therefor take an
abbytabby as (Ta/-, Mc??)   masking the other two versions
a Mackerel tabby as (tata, Mc/-) and
 a Classic as (tata,  mcmc)
Older textbooks [4, 6] report there are 3 tabby patterns: the unstriped Abyssinian-type (Ta_), mackerel (Tm_), and classic (tbtb) that are present at the same genetic site (allele). Because a cat has paired chromosomes, a cat can carry only 2 genes at that site. The classic pattern is recessive to other patterns. The Abyssinian type pattern is reported to be dominant to both mackerel and classic patterns while the mackerel pattern is dominant to the classic pattern. Most texts indicate all three patterns are alleles of the same gene [4, 6]. Contrary to popular belief, Ta probably does not determine the banding frequency of hairs on the hairs on the body (eg, determine whether the hairs are "ticked" versus "tipped"), but rather determines whether there is striping on the main part of the body, the torso.

The unstriped tabby pattern of ASH (U_ denoting unpatterned or unstriped tabby) appears to be genetically similar to or the same as the Abyssinian-type tabby (Ta), although whether they are identical has been a matter of debate. U_ of the ASH appears dominant (or at least partially dominant) over both the mackerel and classic patterns for the first generation of crossing shaded to the recessive classic pattern. Crossing clear shaded ASH to classic tabbies produces first generation (F1) kittens that have tabby markings on the neck, legs, and tail, and generally no or weak tabby markings on the body. This is illustrated in Figure 6 and an actual First generation breeding is found in Table 1.
We do not show a figure 6

this a the duplication of the
breeding in Fig 1
 Thsi is how we see it assuming
homozygous cats, and clear =Ta
Wb is wide band and swb is suprwideband =tipped
the cross is
AA, II, TaTa, (mcmc?probable) WbWb, swbswb
AA, i/i, tata, mcmc, wbwb SwbSwb.
AA, Ii, Ta/ta, mcmc Wbwb  Swbswb

that is an agouti, silver, abbytabby, wide band,  and not tipped (swbswb)

Given that the tipped cat  (as in chinchilla) can clearly mask the Ta characteristics of the cat (Chinchillas are not considered to be abbytabbys) there is no clear reason to assume the shaded cats are  TaTa cats and they most likely are tata mcmc  cats as are all in that line.
We are clearly seeing the effect of wideband.

The U_ gene is not a true complete dominant, since the heterozygote allows the striping on the head and extremities to be expressed. Partial, incomplete, or co-dominance is probably closer to the truth.

Second generation breedings indicate the three patterns (mackerel, classic and unpatterned) can not be at the same allele. In the second generation (Table 1) three tabby patterns emerged: unstriped, classic, and mackerel (Figure 7).

This example clearly illustrates that all three tabby patterns can not be on the same gene group. Because the male was a recessive classic, he could not carry either mackerel or unstriped tabby. The female had to carry all 3 patterns.

I disagree.   I do not see partial dominance. Based on the above.

I believe the conclusions to incorrect here and will explain below.

Table 1
Classic red tabby male x silver unpatterned agouti (shaded silver) female
Unpatterned agouti
1M black smoke
(non agouti masking unpatterned tabby)
2F "shaded" tortoiseshell
1M "shaded" silver
Classic tabby
Mackerel tabby
Classic red tabby male x shaded tortoiseshell female F1 [3 breedings]
Unpatterned agouti
1F shaded cameo
2F shaded tortoiseshell
1M shaded silver
Classic tabby
1F brown patch
1F cameo
1M brown
1F silver patch
1M red
Mackerel tabby
1M cameo
1M silver
1F brown patched
2F, 1M red

This is apparently a different set of breedings to that described above. The reader must remember O  is more susceptible to I/-  therefore this is in our view a less that perfect example.
to start we assume homozygous characteristics and then modify it from the outcomes as discussed below.

AA, ii, ta/ta, mcmc Ox, wbwb  SwbSwb
becomes  Aa,
ii, ta/ta, mcmc Ox, wbwb  Swbswb

dame  -
AA, II, TaTa, (mc?) oo, WbWb,   swbswb
becomes  Aa, II, TaTa, Mcmc oo, WbWb,   swbswb

1 Black smoke  therefore parents are both heterozygous A      and we make it so
2 shaded torties  Oo all females had to be torties
all kittens are silver Ii   - probable dame homozygous all are wide band Wb/wb
one is tipped (shaded silver) means sire is Swb swb- and we make it so.

second breeding
sire-  Aa, ii, ta/ta, mcmc Ox, wbwb  Swbswb
2dame- A/- Ii, Tata, mc? Oo,Wbwb,  swbswb
AA Ii, Tata, Mcmc Oo,Wbwb,  swbswb

-there are no smokes  = 2dame is AA probable and we make it so
- the % of non Ta cats  -is reasonable
- given we have Mc cats Dame must have been Mcmc making 2dame same we make it so.
-given only 4 of 15 are shaded (unpatterned)  - - from breeding only 50 % would be wideband and of those only 50% would be tipped (swbswb)=25%  thus  that number is reasonable.
given one is a cameo that is therefor ?? we find this outcome a  verification of wide band and our supposition of swb. 2 genes one dominant and one recessive.

Figure 7 - F1 shaded bred to Classic Tabby

If the gene behind shaded ASH's is a single dominant gene U_, it is on a separate allele that "masks" the underlying tabby pattern. Table 2 illustrates the expected inheritance if a single dominant gene, U_ produced unstriped tabbies. For the sake of illustration, a shaded "homozygous" shaded female is bred to a classic male without a shaded background
This tile 32 and the one below 33 apparently discuss a third breeding..??

We do not see the genetics this way and believe this to be out of date. - based on Robinsons 4th edition in regard to Ta and Mc. We also believe Wb is operational as is also our speculated swb.

 we do not agree with Dr. Johnson'sconclusions  - - we work out the possibilities below
Table 2

 Expected inheritance with a single unpatterned gene U_
Homozygous classic tabby (uutbtb) x
homozygous shaded carrying mackerel tabby (UUTmTm)

First generation (F1) Table 2a

Parent 2
U Tm
Parent 1
u tb

UuTmtb = Unpatterned tabby carrying mackerel and classic patterns
Homozygous classic tabby (uutbtb) x heterozygous shaded female (UuTmtb)

 Second Generation (F2) Table 2b

Parent 1
Parent 2

u tb

U Tm
Unpatterned tabby carrying mackerel and classic patterns
U tb
Unpatterned tabby carrying classic pattern
U Tm
Mackerel tabby
u tb
Classic tabby
U_= Unpatterned tabby
uu = Patterned tabby
uuTm_ = Mackerel tabby
uutbtb = Classic tabby

(Note:  what is seen opposite may not be what you see if you print.)

Homozygous classic tabby Sire 
AA, BB, CC, DD, ii, oo, tata, mcmc wbwb SwbSwb

Homozygous shaded carrying mackerel tabby dame
AA, BB, CC, DD,  II, oo, TaTa, McMc,WbWb, swbswb

at play
ii,  tata, mcmc wbwb SwbSwb  (male 1)
II,  TaTa, McMc,WbWb, swbswb
all kittens first gen
I/i, Ta ta Mc mc Wb wb Swb swb
that is
silver,  abby tabby,  Wide band  but not tipped with mackerel and classic patterns carried

second generation breeds  original male and kitten who could not be "shaded" as pointed out is 1b

ii,  tata, mcmc wbwb SwbSwb
I/i, Ta ta Mc mc Wb wb Swb swb
50% are silver
50% are abbytabby  (unmarked is her term)
25% are mackerel tabby 25% are classic
50 % will be wide band see 1D kitten
none will be tipped.

as above this exercise is inconclusive and out of date.

I could do a distribution diagran as opposite but it would blow the readers mind and prove nothing with it's 2x2x2x2x2=32 possibilities
The shaded masks homozygous mackerel tabby as is true with most homozygous shaded ASH, in my experience. The recessive inversion of U_ will be called u and uu allows the cats to express a stripped mackerel (Tm_) or classic tabby pattern . Because both parents are homozygous (shaded - UUTmTm, classic uutbtb) all F1 kittens are unstriped tabbies carrying both mackerel and classic tabby patterns (UuTtb). This fits the data of the example. Table 2 shows what happens when the F1 kittens are bred to a classic tabby. Again, this fits the example seen in Table 1
again we do not agree. The table 1 kittens have a different parents that do table 2
While this is a simplest view of unpatterned inheritance, the genetics of shaded cats is more complex. A shaded shorthair is more than a homozygous unpatterned cat. A shaded ASH must have a silver inhibitor gene, a wide undercoat width, and proper banding of the hair so it appears tipped with color. While the homozygous unpatterned gene (UU) may be the most important attribute for removing striping, other minor unpatterned genes are important in removing the residual striping and giving the final appearance of shaded. The minor genes also probably are important in shaded Persians.
ditto comments abve

Wide band without the conclusions. swb is the tipping.
GETTING RID OF THE RESIDUAL STRIPING - Chaos, Confusion, and Erase polygenes

Although the unpatterned gene in the homozygous state, UU, removes most of the pattern on the torso and extremities, other genes are necessary to complete stripelessness and remove the remnants of bars and enhance the appearance of being shaded. These minor genes are inherited separately from U_ and appear to be inheritable from each other. The concept of minor genes has been long accepted and one text refers to these minor genes as polygenes [6]. Most, if not all, probably are coded by multiple genes.
An unfortunate use of terms, - -Pollygenes = I do not know.
Because these genes are inherited separately from the unpatterned gene U_, patterned (striped) tabby cats can inherit them and show attributes normally associated with unstriped cats and vice-versa. As illustrated in Figure 7, tabbies that inherit some of the minor polygenes tend to have ticked or faded patterns. There are at least 2 attributes that are associated with the shading on the torso and main body of shaded ASH. These genes have not been previously described, so for lack of better terms. I will name them Chaos and Confusion. A third gene was proposed by Cathy Galfo from her work with shaded OSH. It has been called 'Erase' and appears to remove some of the residual barring on the extremities.


A good shaded silver ASH the tipping on the ends of the hair may appear even on quick inspection, but close inspection reveals that, like snowflakes, nearly every hair is different from each other (Figure 8). One has a short black banded tip, the next may have 2 dark bands, the next may have a medium black tip, etc. Thorough inspection reveals some hairs are even solid black or all white. And some hairs are utterly preposterous - my all-time favorites are the hairs that are multiply banded from the tip to the base of the hair with the record being 7 dark bands in one hair. This loss of coordination from hair to hair, I term "Confusion". This is in sharp contrast to Abyssinian-type banding that tends to be very even.
I see nothing of a genetic understanding or value here.
The major differences in the darkness of the two kittens in Figure 1 is not the width of the white undercoat or the tipping (both discussed in the next section), but rather the evenness of the hair banding. The shaded kitten in Figure 1a, has a very high level of Confusion and has hairs characterized by very uneven band width as seen in the photograph (Figure 8a) and cartooned in Figure 9. Confusion serves to give the shaded cat the "sparkling" appearance and appears to influence the gradual blending and fading of the color from top to bottom. In Figure 8b, the ticked tabby kitten has an even tipping with all hairs having bands about the same width inherited from its tabby parent. For this kitten, 10 hairs removed from the upper torso and are similar to the Abyssinian type banding cartooned in Figure 8. Confusion present in the shaded kitten has the effect of making the torso darker on the top and gradually shading to white below. The ticked tabby kitten has even color which stops abruptly at the pale abdomen.
read fig 9

Again , as Dr Johnson does not appear to have an understandng of the inheritance of Ta and Mc cats and uses terms indiscriminately there is much confusion here of a non genetic kind.
8a. Shaded tortie 4 mo kitten
fig8b1 8b2
8b. 'Ticked' tabby 4 mo kitten

Confusion appears to be a loss coordination of the hair follicles to make hairs with the same banding frequency as its neighbors. A good classic tabby has a very even color and a low level
of 'confusion'. Within a stripe, the hairs in any location have nearly the identical banding frequency as their neighbors (Figure 10).
fig 9

Figure 9 - Shaded tortie and ticked tabby

interesting observations

Uneven shaded type banding  --  Even tabby banding
                                                   light stripes               dark stripes

23a--                 23b                   23c

Figure 10 - Shaded and classic tabby banding.
The hair follicles are coordinated to produce the same amount of melanin for the same distance on the hair. The width of the dark band may be longer on the top of the cat compared to the bottom, but the progression is smooth and the dark tipping appears very even. Similarly, in the light striped areas, the hairs are multiply banded but the banding is very even. The hair follicles in the stripe areas are well coordinated with each other and relate to what the other is doing.
interesting observations
Patterned classic ASH tabbies are selected for even hair tipping (little Confusion), otherwise the pattern looks very uneven and mottled. In many cases, when a shaded cat is crossed with a classic tabby, the evenness of tipping appears to be dominant and the F1 generation are ticked tabbies similar to the one shown. Confusion is common in silver Persians - most silver and Chinchilla Persians have some banded hairs, if observed closely. Some Chinchilla Persian breeders have reported that some judges will put a Chinchilla Persian in a Silver category if they see solid black hairs. Based on the ubiquitous nature of this gene, it probably is not appropriate to classify a Persian based solely on this single attribute and the color probably should be assigned based on the overall appearance of the cat regardless of a few solid black hairs.
It is worth reminding the reader that a shaded cat as is addressed here can also be a tipped cat and that these genes that cause this shading and tipping(Wb and swb) mask the cats true pattern. (Ta or Mc variant)
Abyssinians are selected for evenness of banding and they tend to less Confusion expression, as a general rule than do shaded ASH. It is a subtle difference, but Abyssinians tend to have a sharper demarcation between where the body ticking ends and the unticked underbelly or insides of the legs begins. In shaded ASH, this contrast is softened so the tipping of the body subtly blends into white on the belly. Patterned tabby ASH, on the other hand, are selected very even coat patterns and either lack Confusion genes or perhaps have a different set of genes that resist Confusion expression (hypothesized Unconfused genes).
I rest my case.

What is also important is that since the cat is selected for an even coat in the ASH shaded version, there would be a selection process that would take it away from it's original type which I understand from this article was a classic tabby, and move it towards a Abbytabby  ( a tata.mcmc to a Ta/-, ? )

A special category of Confusion attribute is called Roaning. Roaning is a rare trait in which solid white hairs are intermixed with normal hairs. A black roan has white hairs intermixed with black, giving it a flea-bitten look. Roaning can be inherited separately from the more common uneven Confusion banding width and is relatively rare. In shaded ASH, Roaning is one genetic strategy by which a shaded may become a chinchilla.

Chaos also disrupts the striped pattern, but appears to be inherited independently of Confusion. In a classic tabby, Chaos causes an intermixing of the light striped areas into the black and vice-versa and is probably responsible for many cases of what ASH breeders call "ticking" of a classic tabby pattern. In these cats, the coat banding is even for the type of hair expressed, it is just that the hairs occur at an abnormal site.

In shaded ASH, Chaos serves to eradicate residual striping that "breaks through" on the torso. Unstriped cats that lose these Chaos attributes tend to show "ghost" striping as can be seen on the back of the ticked tabby in Figure 8b. "Ghost stripes" on an unpatterned tabby are different than those of a true mackerel tabby. In a true mackerel tabby, the dark striped areas have different banding than the light striped area as for classic tabbies cartooned in Figure 10. "Ghost dark stripes" generally have the same number of bands as the "light stripe" areas, its just that the tipping has changed a little to line up evenly suggesting some coordination of banding. "Ghost striped" unpatterned tabbies are also genetically different from true mackerel tabbies. Breeding two "ghost striped" unpatterned tabbies together can produce a clear unpatterned shaded, while breeding two true mackerel tabbies together never produce a clear unpatterned shaded.
I disagree.

As in Fig 1 A tipped cat when bred to a tabby cat (wbwb,Swb/-) will produce an in between cat as a result of a dominant ( Wb)
and a resessive (swb)acting together.
The math proof of that, Dr. Johnson provides in her  results in Table 1
Erase and other genes that affect the stripes on the extremities

Residual striping on the extremities (neck, legs and tail) may persist even in the presence of homozygous UU, Chaos, and Confusion. Other clean-up genes are necessary to remove the residual stripes. Cathy Galfro has proposed an "Erase" gene as it appears to be inherited discretely to "erase" the residual markings on shaded OSH.

The defined leg markings on Singapuras indicate that minor tabby patterns on the extremities can be genetically fixed with appropriate selection while all other tabby striping are suppressed. Stripes in these same places can be present on homozygous shaded cats as residual markings. In shaded ASH, Erase or several Erase-like genes appear to be needed to remove striping on the legs, neck, and tail.
is this the swb swb??

It is also worth note that "Erase", "Chaos" and "Confusion" are given no genetic symbols nor are they provided with a dominant recessive discussion or treatment.
As such, it is specualtion.
TIPPING IS AN ILLUSION - Undercoat width and banding frequency polygenes

The natural banding of an unpatterned cat hair is similar to the light striped areas on classic tabbies and usually starts with a dark band, followed by a light band, followed by a dark band. Getting this multiple banding down to just a colored tip has been accomplished in shaded ASH by using several genetic strategies. All shaded cats have a wide undercoat width, so this section will start with a description of the "Widebanding genes".
What strateges ??
Undercoat Width Genes (Widebanding genes)

The first description of genes that determine the width of the undercoat has been credited to Joan Wasselhuber who coined the term "Widebanding" genes. Undercoat width genes determine the width of the undercoat whether or not the cat has a silver inhibitor gene. The term "undercoat" used in this paper refers to part of the hair shaft closest to the body and includes both guard hairs and the shorter hairs often referred to as "undercoat" hairs. As previously illustrated in Figure 2, both silver and non-silver cats can have hairs characterized by a pigmented banded tip and an unpigmented (eg. Silver tabby) or phaeomelanin pigmented (brown tabby) "undercoat".
Sure wish they had not used that term.

I wonder if she means fig 3
The width of the undercoat is varies depending on where it is on the cat. An example of distribution of the undercoat width was seen in a silver tabby in Figure 3. The undercoat width is narrowest closest to the spine line and longest close to the belly. In the ASH breed, all colors with a silver inhibitor gene are required to have a "white" undercoat present on all parts of the cats, including along the spine line. When the pigment goes to the roots, it is considered a pattern-fault in silver tabbies.
read  - -wide band width


that would be narrow band??
The undercoat width for nonsilver colors is not defined in the ASH breed. Some brown tabbies have a wide undercoat as evidenced by a warm brown color underlying the black stripe area, while in others the black striped areas are black to the roots. Even in these dark cats, microscopically the eumelanin is less dense at the base of the hair. In the ASH brown tabby, either of these patterns is considered correct.
Thus it would appear that some (golden) tabbies are both  "wideband"(Wb/-) and may well be superwide (swbswb) band  given that the golden is much less of a colour reducer than silver (I/-)  and is phenotypically  harder to pinpoint,  in our view.
In mice, the silver inhibitor gene may strongly influence the width of the undercoat. This is different than in cats, where the silver inhibitor gene probably has little influence on the width of the undercoat when the melanin type is eumelanin (black pigment) but may have an effect with sex-linked orange phaeomelanin. If the width of the undercoat was linked to the expression of the silver inhibitor gene, logically all the silver kittens arising from a silver shaded to brown tabby breeding should all have the broad white undercoat of the shaded parent responsible for donating the silver inhibitor gene. Instead as noted by others [5], the kittens express a variety of undercoat widths ranging from very narrow (dark) to very broad (light). Shaded cats crossed with very dark tabbies often have very dark silver offspring.

yes agreed

I/-, Wb/wb, swbswb
ii, wbwb Swb/-
I/i, wbwb. Swb swb
a silver narrowband cat
see sales discussion Opra kittens
The widebanding genes (Wb) are probably polygenetic which would allow for the great variability seen in the undercoat widths in cats. Precisely how the agouti, silver inhibitor, and widebanding genes interact on a molecular level is not clear. One possibility is the widebanding genes influence the agouti protein production to remain high so that eumelanin pigment remains inhibited or down-regulated. Another possibility is that the widebanding gene encodes for a second inhibitory protein that also down-regulates eumelanin.
precisely as we have explained  - -there are 2 ,  one dominant ,  the second recessive.

The only thing we are unclear of is if the two act separately - - - or is swb is dependent on Wb
In the case of the black smoke, a cat that has both non-agouti and silver inhibitor, the two genes appear at odds with each other. As mentioned previously, the non-agouti gene is able to suppress the influence of the silver inhibitor gene at the tip of the hair, but not at the base (in the widebanding zone) so a silver undercoat is present (Figure 5). However, in many cases the effect is not perfect. Black smokes may have color faults, especially if one of these genes are expressed at a higher level than the other. In some cases, a poorly expressed non-agouti gene or an over-expression of the silver inhibitor gene will lead to a pale "washed out" black smoke. Over-expression of the non-agouti gene or under-expression of the silver inhibitor gene will cause the undercoat to appear gray instead of white.

All shaded cats (both long- and shorthaired breeds) need a broad undercoat width to give the shaded its pale silvery appearance. If a short undercoat width is present, the cat appears as a tabby (mackerel, classic or unstriped "ticked" tabby depending on the underlying genetics).
where is fig 5

We do not agree with the current definition of smoke being  non agouti, silver (aa, I/-). There is far to much evidence we have at Horizons (
sales discussion Opra kittens) and in all texts on the subject,  including Robinsons' and Gloria Stephens Legacy to disprove that theory. A cat can clearly be non agouti and silver and not be a smoke. We therefor take the position that a smoke is a Wideband cat (aa , Wb).  A solid, as is a Burmese, is a narrowband cat (aa,wbwb).
The variation that is seen in smokes is due to the cat being golden ( ii ) at the lower end and silver, wideband (I/-,swbswb) at the upper end. Other colour inhibition genetics also influence what is seen as variation in the band width i.e. sepia , and dilute.

The reader should also understand as we believe the case to be proven that a solid cat can be  silver , therefore it can also be golden, and thus the genetics of DM as proposed and discussed by Pat Turner in Robinsons  p 141 edit 4 does not exist.  dmdm is really the manifestation of golden and in fact Apricot, the pale cream is a genetic silver ( I ) cat. the Taupe is a silvered lilac and Caramel , the silvered blue.
It is only in the dilutes (dd cats) that the eye can see the difference.


I/-= Dm/

apricot (pale cream)
dd.Ox, I/
"paler lilac"
aa, BB, dd, ii caramel
"lighter than blue but not lilac"
aa, BB, dd, I/-

It is our intention to test this theory with DNA testing.

Banding Frequency genes

Banding frequency can be defined at the number and width of the pigmented bands present on the hair of an agouti cat. The agouti gene permits the hairs to have banded colors, but other genes (banding frequency genes) influence the number of bands that actually occur on the hairs. An ideal shaded silver hair is characterized by a single broad eumelanin band at the tip while Abyssinian-type banding is characterized by multiple (at least 2) small eumelanin bands interspersed with light bands (phaeomelanin). At a molecular level, banding frequency probably translates to the time interval in which an agouti protein that turns on and off. Even though the banding looks precise to the eye, under the microscope, black pigment (eumelanin) may appear in the light band (phaeomelanin) areas.
Do not agree - -just read wide band and super wideband. another try at wide band  - the penny did not drop???
Several genetic strategies appear to play a part in producing the illusion of tipping in the shaded phenotype. In the ideal shaded cats, the tip of the hairs are pigmented, but the shaft is non-pigmented or otherwise silver. In Figure 11, three possible genetic strategies are depicted. In the first genetic strategy, shown in drawings Ia-c, the banding frequency decreases, but the undercoat width (square brackets) remains the same. In the first drawing (Ia) a hair has 3 rather small black bands suggesting the agouti protein turns on and off fairly rapidly. In drawing Ib, the banding frequency changes so agouti protein is influenced to produce 2 medium black bands before it turns off. Finally, with more selection, the banding frequency is selected to produce only one band (Ic). In this model, the hair is truly tipped with color; changing the width of the undercoat does not influence the tipping.
no fig 11
suggest the reader look at fig 10 and the drawings in reverse order
In the second genetic strategy, drawings IIa-c, the banding frequency remains the same but the undercoat width is selected to be progressively wider, until it cuts off the second dark band. This give the illusion that only a single band is present, while genetically the cat is coded for multiple bands, but the bands closest to the base are "masked" by the undercoat width. Decrease the undercoat width and the multiple bands become apparent again.

The most common genetic strategies in shaded ASHs appear to be a combination of II and III. The dark bands become broader and a wide undercoat is necessary to produce the illusion of tipping. The evidence for this is present microscopically. On many hairs a band of increased melanin is often microscopically apparent in the region where the second dark band would normally be present. In other words, tipped hairs are genetically banded hairs, but the melanin synthesis in the inner band is down-regulated, probably by the influence of the widebanding genes, so visually it appears only one band is present. The single band frequency (strategy 1) either is very rare or does not occur in shaded ASH. In contrast, Abyssinians are selected for a banding frequency that turns off and on rapidly so multiple bands are apparent before the undercoat cuts of the remaining bands or selection of a relatively narrow undercoat.

Classic tabbies have multiply banded hairs present in the light striped areas. As previously illustrated (Figure 3), the banding varies according to location on the body. Tabbies also show variation in banding frequency with most tabbies having 2 colored bands along the spine, some having 3 colored bands, and a few having only 1 colored band. This multiple banding in the classic tabby parent influences the banding frequency of the F1 generation of a shaded x tabby outcross and multiple bands usually dominate.

Taking apart the shaded color

So what actually happens when shaded ASH are bred to classic tabbies? First generation outcrosses of a clear shaded silver (no leg bars) with a classic tabby result in all the kittens having no striping on the torso but bars on the extremities and head. Similar genetics occur regardless of the tabby or shaded lines. I and other ASH breeders have found this to be the pattern in a variety of other shaded lines including Allstar, Banchory, Darksun, Erosgata, Fanthai, Gatico, Marya, Norpark, and Sanabel. Barring on the first generation kittens occurred even though a variety of classic tabby lines were used: Amex, Solmer, Murjani, Obiwan, or Stedam lines.

Whether these kittens are light or dark depended on the classic partner. Some classic tabbies appear to be permissive to the shaded traits and the kittens are light enough to be registerable as shadeds. Other classic tabby lines are clearly not shaded-permissive and all the kittens are dark (and registered as ticked tabbies in my cattery until this was prohibited by CFA). Generally the darkness of the F1 has been linked to a narrow widebanding gene and excessively even color, both attributes that contribute to a clear classic tabby pattern. As mentioned above, multiple banding is more frequent than single banding tipping. Rather than being evidence of hybridization, these are predictable recombinations of traits inherited from both parents.

The shaded ASH phenotype is a collection of attributes, not a single gene or gene product. The shaded ASH genotype is probably nearly identical to that in Oriental Shorthairs and differs from most Persians, probably only in the presence of the unpatterned gene. Recently a Chinchilla breeder sent me pictures of her kittens which do not have patterns at birth, laying to rest the myth that Persians do not have unpatterned cats.
some Persians are Ta/.  OK not all are tata Mc/-
Putting it back together

It will come as no surprise to a shaded breeder of any breed that outcrossing to tabbies or any other non-shaded cats can make it hard to regain the shaded pattern. It is hoped that this article will lend better understanding as to why it is so difficult to regain a shaded pattern following outcrossing to a tabby pattern. The complexity of the shaded pattern is unequalled by any other pattern/color combination. At least 6 independently inherited traits need to be recovered to form the shaded pattern following breeding of a shaded to a classic.
A/-, B/- C/- D/- I/-, O/-,  Ta/ ,(Mc), Wb/- swb
we count 10
a b ,c, d, mc  - are probably not in play.
O should not be
equals 4

Breeding back to a homozygous shaded stock often results in loss of type, while breeding two superior type outcross heterozygotes together results in better type, but regaining the shaded pattern is hit-and-miss (and with the law of averages, mostly miss). Rarely are the progeny of two outcrosses homozygous at all genes. With patience, close observation, and a sound understanding of the genetics behind the pattern, progress is possible in 2 to 4 generations, even in the shaded ASH pattern.

The shaded shorthair genotype is one of the oldest American Shorthair color patterns and genetically most complex color patterns ever reported. Many attributes that make up the shaded shorthair phenotype: agouti, unpatterned tabby (U_), at least 3 sets of polygenes that clean up the residual striping, and at least 2 sets of polygenes that influence the number of bands on the hairs. The outcrossing of shaded ASH with classic tabbies show these attributes are independently inherited. First generation kittens show distinct stripes on the head, neck, legs, and tail and may be appear very light (shaded) or very dark (ticked tabby) depending on the recombination of genes inherited from each parent. A sound understanding of the genetics behind the shaded color is essential to being able to utilize tabbies in a shaded ASH program. Knowledge of the genetics behind the shaded and classic tabby patterns helps explain why it takes between 2 and 4 generations to get the color back following a shaded to tabby breeding.
This understanding needs to be updated to Robinsons 4 edition

Special thanks to Dawn Skupin for her review and encouragement. The writer would like to thank the following persons for their input: Margo Melles for scientific review; Heather Lorimer and Lorraine Sheldon for scientific discussion; Dawn Skupin, Leo Halblieb, Gail Johnson, Kathy Needham, Janee Waterman, Wayne Park, David DeOre, and Dee White for sharing their breeding stock and for Nobuko Kuruso, Mary Robinson, Gayle Johnson, Charlene Rankin, Howard Webster, and Jeanette McCormick for sharing their experiences with shaded American Shorthairs.
Given Loraine is the editor of Robinsons 4th edition  of 1999 I am surprised Dr. Johnson did not use Ta and Mc , "see" the "wideband" genetics and understand a second recessive -  in our view, the math clearly demonstrates it.
 Johnson CW. The shaded American Shorthair. In 1999 Cat Fanciers' Association Yearbook, Cat Fancier's Association Inc, New Jersey, in press
Johnson CW The shaded American Shorthair. Cat Fanciers' Almanac 15(7):14, 1998
Edwards VA A rainbow of colors. American Connection, Fall 1994
Stephen G. Legacy of the Cat. Yama-Kei Publishers Co. Ltd 1989 Japan
Lorimer. The silver inhibitor gene. Cat Fancier's Journal
Wright M, Walters S. eds. The Book of the Cat. Summit Books, 1980, New York
Current Gloria Stephens Legacy of the cat is dated 2001 and yes we have spelled it correctly.
We did correspond with Gloria a few years ago and understand that since then she has died.
Gloria Stephens
TICA's "Great Communicator," Gloria Stephens, is gone. She passed away in her sleep on July 28, 2005 at her home, but she left an indelible mark in the ... - 11k - Cached - Similar pages

What is a smoke!!
Note The photos of the kittens are 300 dpi and can be enlarged considerably without distortion.

The view,  widely held,  is that a smoke cat is a "Self"  that is silver.  In genetic terms    aa,   and  I/-
This is true but we suggest that  NOT  all cats that are  "Self" (non-agouti) and silver are smokes based on the breeding below.

Given conventional genetic understanding -
As golden is recessive   the dame  Opra must be  i/i and as two of the kittens are silver   - - that must come from the sire and therefore he must be I/i.
He is clearly not a smoke.

Conclusion  self cats can be either golden or silver and thus these genetics would be   (??) epistatic  and unknown .
Conclusion    there is someting else going on  - - we suggest   To be a smoke  a cat must also be Wideband. AND  there is something else beyond that.

tile set 1 in which we discuss the litter in question below - - - Burmilla Kittens born May 15 08
Horizons Oprah

A (Black) Golden Ticked female Burmilla born 3 May 2007  from Coventry  a Chocolate (Champagne) European Burmese and sire Catsland Elliot a (Black tipped) Chinchilla Persian.
Elliot is a North American bred CCA registered Chinchilla Persian. We understand his mother to have been golden.
His pedigree is posted with his picture.
Oprah is the first of a unique Burmilla line from a foundation of European Burmese and North American Chinchilla Persian cats.

It is reasonable ( but not conclusive) to assume that she would have to be Wideband.
To see another such breeding see   Miss Tick

Horizons Midnite
Black F4 Burmilla male born  April 17 06
Soliloquay (full expression LH brown Tortie F3 X
 Constitution  (Sable European Burmese male)  LH carrier

readers have noted that the dame is variously called sable /brown/havanna
that is because the colour descriptor for genetic full expression brown  (aa, bb, C/-,) has not been provided by the CCA standard - -it was missed. It is hoped that it will be corrected soon.
kittens at 1 week below

the litter of heads
2 golden, 2 silver,1 self photos 6 days old may 21
and again
2 golden 1 silver from on top
kit4 belly
self belly
golden bellys
golden bellys
silver belly
silver belly
At 2 weeks below


These 4 photos June 2 08 2 weeks
at 3 weeks below


 these 4 photos June 8 at 3 weeks

They have just completed their 3 week internasal vacination and are a little wet around the eyes.

The two "silvers" have not yet turned into muted golden as some would claim . Both appear to be sepia pointed and the boy on the left appears to be notably more marked and less silver  as taken from the view of the legs. He is on the right in the  tile to the left.
Photo July 23 at 10 weeks

golden girl full expression brown golden ticked
golden girl
silver boy golden girl
silver boy   a sable by the paw pads
silver girl also a sable by the paw pads
golden boy with head on silver girl  - -that is another litter above
golden boy and silver boy
From a genetics point of view the neither of two silvers are is black as is the golden boy (above)  both are clearly brown to the eye withe the dark paw pads. thus they would in our view be sable , that is B/-, cbcb.
the two silvers are
A/a ( the a from the sire),
B/- (probable B/b as each parent is B/b[the bb kittens],
cbcb (both parents had a burmese parent and had to be Ccb),
I/i ( i  - -dame is golden)
L/-  (probable Ll as both parents are long hair carriers
oo ox
Wb/wb   ( we think)
SWB/- there is no tipped cat
okits okitQ

the brown self  (Havanna brown??) with no silver belly hair  - - -not a smoke

aa, bb, C/-, D/-,  I? probable I/i, L/-, ox, wbwb, swb?

This is Saga and opposite is Matrix at 5 months of age. Both will be neutered. We have decided not to breed them as they have God Fortune Fortunatus a long way back in their pedigree. That's politics in the cat fancy

Is this a smoke?? It depends on how the reader defines Smoking.

Given the boy shown below--
We do not think it is. We understand him to be a  Non agouti,  black, burmese pointed, non dilute, silver  narrow band (a/a, B/-, cb/cb, D/-, I/- .... wb/wb. )
all photos of the Boy are 300 dpi and can be increased in size without distortion.
the reader should note that often these cats may tke some time to show the smoking   ie up to 1 year.

tile set 2 in which we discuss  "bad smokes"
the dame

Ch. Horizons Cloud

F3 Burmilla (long hair sable female) born July 7 04
(full expression Lilac female F3 Burmilla Lh Carrier) X
 Pluvius  (  SH (silver) sable shaded  male   F + Burmilla [LH Carrier]) -

cloud kit

early kitten photos 2 days old
the sire
midnite3the sire
Horizons Midnite
Black F4 Burmilla male born  April 17 06
Soliloquay (full expression LH Brown Tortie F3 X
  Constitution  (Sable European Burmese male)  LH carrier 
his litter - -he is in the center of the mob.

cloudkit22 feb08

Burmilla Kittens Born Dec 22 07 to
X Midnite Ebony(  Black)Burmilla male
1 Black/ Ebony male shorthair
1  Indigo/ full express blue male longhair - -  Stirling
2 Champagne Lh females
2 Sable males 1 might be Lh

photo at 8 weeks
the boy
the boy at 20 weeks
he was always noted as being a lighter sable than his brother.
back stroke on lower back
his coat
his coat
back stroke on middle back no flash
back stroke the head
the head
the normal head that clearly shows the Burmese pointing.
belly and paws
belly and paws they are clearly sable paws

If  one defines smoke as non agouti and silver  he is that.
But as we have pointed out  his sire is both non agouti and silver is is most clearly not smoke. A back stroke of the fur is black to the roots.
Here is a smoke - -by the conventional  understanding  ??

tile set 3 in which we look at more smokes  - "good smokes"

laylakit2sm he is from Layla and Findus

here he is as a kitten
2nd litter
Burmilla Kittens  Born Jan 22 '08 to
Layla  (Black  F + Burmilla female)XCh Findus  ( Sable Shaded Silver short hair Burmilla male)
1 black smoke male
1 Black golden ticked male

Layla is the sister of Midnight and her previous (first) litter was
at  6 weeks
First litter with Findus

in order left to right
1 Black shaded silver F
1 Sable shaded silver  F (Godiva) she may now be either sable or champagne??
1 Full expression Brown smoke (Havanna) M
1 Black ticked golden 
1 Black  smoke) M

layla smokes
This is a photo of the two smokes in the above noted first litter.

We remind the reader that the best defining feature of an agouit cat as against a non agouti is the Brick nose. We find it conclusive.

As the reader can see there is a consideable difference in the level of "Smoking" just as there is in the agouti cats.
(We generally understand that as the cat ages this smoking will increase in visibility.)

tile set 4 is which we look at "wide banding" and difficult goldens

Both cats are golden but this boy has clearly less showing and is initially often confused with a poor silver.
The golden is more pronounced with a photograph and under certain light conditions.
We believe that it is the marking on the side cheek below and behind the eye and the increased tarnishing around the nose that demonstrates the golden  genetics.
Since writing this and based on the litter photographed above we now believe this to be the tarnished silver that is talked about.  Golden is clearly golden and this is best seen at birth and when wet.

boy at 6 weeks

While there is little marking  on the forelegs of the boy to the right there is this hint of colour that often shows when viewed against a white background.

reader will note the distinct diff. in the paw colour
one is black and the other brown.
(The discolouration on the left leg[rt hand photo] is due to it being wet  - - suckling from another kitten)
We believe them to both be full expression one black and the other genetic brown.
<>The reader will now hopefully understand some of the difficulties in
a) determining colour ground colour silver  vs golden  and genetic colour Black  vs Brown  and we haven't yet shown the maltesed colours.
see 'is my kitten golden"

b) why we believe there is at least 1 other gene (wide band ) in operation.

eye colour
eye colour from legacy /stephens edit 2 Eye Colour
  3 diagrams from Legacy of the Cat by Gloria Stephens edition 2

In  her first edition Gloria shows various eye colours ranging from copper to blue, with a written comment equivalent to what is produced in these diagrams. In her second edition there is no written comment, but  an increased array of cat eye photos.

She does however make the connection between the melanin production, as regulated by the various recessive mutations of the full colour (C) gene.  Being
Sepia-- cb/cb  - - - gold eyes
Pointed -- cs/cs--- blue eyes
White coat  - -CA/ CA  -- not dominant white - -blue eyes
Albino    caca   - -pink eye-no colour
Mink cb/cs - -  green eyes

She also comments on the inhibitor I gene
as producing a "shredded or weakened phaeomelanin"  and thus green eyes.
eye3 Robinson's discuss eye colour on page 135,  wherein they say is is not monogenetic [as in humans +/- ](thus is polygenetic). They suggest the B gene and its vaiations (B,b,b1) may have some additional effect .
The reader should also check out
Eye Color in Oriental Shorthairs (and other cats).
It is the web site of  Dr. Heather E. Lorimer
Dr. Lorimer is quoted in Robinsen's.
The reader should check out Wikipedia on eyes.
It is suggested there are 4 factors that work additionally to produce eye colour. While this may or may not be true we have played with a 4 factor checkerboard in excel that  Isa initiated  that the reader may find interesting. [if it will download]. It is a work in progress as of feb'09.

A determination of colour based on paw pads - -  Jan17'09
Above are photos of Hector and Fokker's paw pads dirty, scrubbed, back and front. The front pair showed a greater diff. in colour. Fokker is a sable Burmese. The photos are untouched and are a large file so that any reader can download and expand the file. Both boys are of similar age.
Based on these results we believe Hector to be a genetic black cat. He is therefore not Sable as  originally noted and this changes the colour genetics of his sire Silver Phoenix
note the silver paws are those of Hector

photo Jan 2010
Above are the two front paws of the two cats discussed below. Both are Burmillas, The one on the right is the caramel girl, the left is the  blue shaded shaded.
The reader should note the left paw has a redish tinge not dissimilar to that in the photos above. It is very difficult to match colors in photos to what the eye sees and this photo caused some concern when first viewed, such that we then went back to look carfully at the cats in question. Our conclusion was that the photo shows a slight redish tinge that does not exist. we still view the cats (and the paws) as blue and lilac.
this is a lilac tortie burmese paw photo on the same day as above under similar conditions
the cat is Rainbow the toe pad on the left is the tortie toe. The palm pad is as we see it,  and thus photo is a good representation.

Ref. is made to the breed standard discussions
"Caramel is not a colour"
This is true from a genetics point of view but as seen by the eye is something unique, thus valid in the eyes of breeders, and subject to confusion.
Caramel is a colour combination of genetic Blue  on a golden background.
ie the cat is :
A/a, B/-,(or bb) C/-, (or cbcb), and d/d,  - - i/i,
agouti, Black or brown, full expression or pointed, dilute/maltesed, golden...
The extent that this is seen and or commented upon varies and to how solid the colour is.  That is to say that ground colour deposition depends on if the cat is agouti or not, dilute or not, and the extent of the colour bands in the agouti cat, and that is to say is it wide band or super wide band.
While we have held the position for some time on this web site that a self, solid colour, non agouit cat , can be determined by the discerning eye to be golden or not (see our discussions on the powder cream and the powder blue and the comments on "dilutuon modifier" Robinsons p 141) this view is not widely held.
The reader would therefor understand the changing extent that this determination can be made if the cat is "tipped" (super wide band).
Also true is that the less ground colour available (more pointed) the more difficult it is to determine exactly what colour  the cat is ie full, expression blue or pointed blue, full ecpression lilac or pointed lilac  ie [B/-,C/-,dd   in it's variations].

Below please find a series of photos that illustrate the point.

These two girls are sisters, the girl on the left in top left photo is Juno.
She is a lilac golden shaded and in fact may have the genetics for tipping. (super wide band)
Her sister is a blue shaded silver. (The 4th photo is at 300 DPI and can be enlarged without distortion)
The actual Lilac colour can best be seen along the ridge of the tail.
There is not a lot of difference between Juno and a cream Burmese in a dull light. For those into the biochemistry of the colours , that would be understandable.

Variations on a theme of smoking


Burmilla kittens born  April 27 2011.. to
Mimi  sable smoke Burmilla female X Hector (Black shaded silver Burmilla )
3 males 1 female (the dark kitty on the left)