| D8400 installed
UNS 1 E FMS from |
3260 East Universal Way
Tucson, AZ 85706
(520) 573-7627 (800) 595-5906
Report No. 3040sv80X/90X
Dated October 1, 2007
802.2 software the unit consists of
The function keys.
The line select keys.
The Alpha keys(keyboard) and the numeric keys.
the numeric keys
Note: at the end of this document we provide a large scale illustration of "the unit" - we suggest you photcopy it to keep beside you for reference as you review this document.
|2|| with |
DATA TRANSFER UNIT (DTU-100)
Database loading via ZIP disk found on the 400 on the shelf beside/behind the copilots seat.
COMPUTER UNIT (NCU)|
System Management |
Pilot Data Storage
Fuel Management Monitoring
Lateral Guidance and Steering
AFIS Advisory System Interface
Optional UniLink Interface
Avionics Flight Management Systems are centralized control and
master computer systems, designed to consolidate and optimize the
acquisition, processing, interpretation, and display of certain
aircraft navigational data. |
FMS systems is installed with multi-sensor systems.
The long range navigation sensors Inertial, GNSS, GPS. can also be accommodated. When a DME interface is included, the DME input is considered a short range sensor and is from a multichannel DME.with up to 15 are continuously tracked. VOR input is provided, VOR/VOR-DME /RNAV (VOR DME) approaches when GPS integrity does not meet integrity requirements. VOR can be used enroute as a last resort sensor.
The FMS takes advantage of a particular sensor's good properties while minimizing its liabilities. The system processes multiple sensor information in order to derive one Best Computed Position (BCP).
The certainty of the FMS's Position to a 95% probability is expressed as Actual Navigation Performance (ANP) in hundredths of a nautical mile (0.07).
The FMS allows for Required Navigation Performance RNP to be manually set by the pilot when the default values are not what is required.
stored navigation database provides the capacity for all conceived uses
along with up to 200 pilot
created flight plans.The
off line features allows for use of a PC for planning and subsequent
2) Frequency management
3) Lateral and vertical guidance Internal self monitor sensor watchdog including alarms for
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MONITORING (RAIM)
FAULT DETECTION AND EXCLUSION (FDE)
HORIZONTAL INTEGRITY LIMIT (HIL)
4) Options for Unilink and AFIS
It operates with the Global Navigation Satellite System using orbiting satellites to plot latitude and longitude positions on the earth. Two countries currently support GNSS programs, the United States of America and Japan (GPS)and Russia with the (GLONASS). Future GNSS programs are planned by Europe (Galileo),and China's(Beidou). for more detail see UNS manual.
Press ON/OFF DIM key to power up. The system will perform a Self Test .
PASS, or FAIL indicates operating status. Some failures will allow limited operation.
A power off /on , (reboot) may clear some problems.
|7|| After successful
completion of self-tests, the INIT (initialization)
page will be
The INITIAL POS displays the Latitude and Longitude (L2) and Line (L1) indicates the source for the FMS position <GNSS> or <GPS>. (most accurate.If not displayed, the displayed coordinates are those of the FMS when it last stopped navigating.
If not reasonable -- -Pressing 1L line select key, will highlight the space placed next to ID for crew input.
Direct entry can be made with the use of the alpha keys (IE CYZD airport ) or by using the List function key to select a position.
The cursor will pre-fill the list number of the waypoint closest to the initial position coordinates. Distances from initial position are shown. If an airport ALIGN PT has created it will appear under the APT/PLT listing.
Input the correct number in the cursor field and press ENTER.
When the GNSS or GPS are in NAV mode, UTC and date are automatically updated, (R2 and R3) allowing the GPS to correct the date and time is strongly recommended.
Verify parameters and then ACCEPT by pressing line select key L5 beside highlighted window. When pressed, the ACCEPT line select key will disappear as will <GNSS> or <GPS> if used for initial coordinates.
for a dual installarion
pressing the ON/ OFF DIM key again , an overlay will be brought up that
allows for controlling the brightness of the screen. |
Press and hold the BRIGHT (R1) or DIM (R2 )line select key to set the preferred screen brightness.
correct any parallax issues, press the DISPLAY line select key and
This allows for UP and DOWN line adjustment.
Press the CANCEL line select key to remove the current overlay or the ON/OFF DIM key to close the entire overlay.
on initialize the accuracy of the initial position could produce a
large circle of position. outside Horizontal Integrity Limits (HIL) of
the GNSS or GPS. This will present a position uncertain message (ANP
exceeds RNP) . The FMS will continue to
consolidate the NAV sensor input and eventually the position uncertain
message will disappear. While the position
uncertain message is displayed, the FMS will continue to navigate to
the best tolerances possible.|
| FLIGHTPLAN |
Pressing the FPL function key see-----
The first flightplan waypoint will pre-fill with the nearest airport The cursor will be ready to accept the next point. The COPY PLT RTE and COPY CO RTE (if applicable) line select key will be displayed.
The flightplan may be constructed, by directly imputing waypoints into the cursor;
A route from the pilot or company database may be copied into the flightplan by pressing the appropriate line select key. (R3 or R4)
note. UNILINK RTE is an option generally not seen.
|12|| Press COPY
PLT RTE and see---- |
PLT RTES - -1/X page.
The routes directory of all existing stored routes. Routes are in geographical/alphabetical order. The PREV or NEXT keys may be used to move to the page with the desired route.
At the cursor, enter the list number of the desired route and press ENTER .
|In this case Route
#1 was entered
The route was copied and the cursor returns after the last waypoint to enter additional points if desired.
If KTUS is the destination then---
Press the keyboard MENU key .
It is indicated as available by the M in the top right corner of the screen.
|14|| And see----- |
The STORE FPL line select key ( R1) will make and electronic copy of the existing flightplan and store it as a pilot route database and ---.
|15|| See----- |
The cursor is highlighted and allows the crew to name the route file in the PLT PTE database.
A (+) key will place a period that can be used for a space.
Up to 8 alphanumeric characters is available. If no name is entered, the FMS default name is the first waypoint plus the last waypoint.
and press ENTER
|16|| Located at the last
of the PLT RTE find----(NEXT NEXT if reqd) see----- |
This page can be used to estimate time enroute and fuel required. It can be used to determine takeoff and arrival times for both UTC and local.
Depending on how you have accessed this flightplan file you will see
1) PLT RTE SUMMARY (database)or
2) FPL SUMMARY (active flight plan)
The FPL SUMMARY page is available only on the ground because real time information is available in flight.
The PLT RTE SUMMARY page is always available to the associated pilot route.
On the FPL SUMMARY page TAS is used (L4) and, as a result, time in route can be adjusted for wind.
| By entering GS/TAS,
FF, and RESERVES along with the ETD UTC the arrival time can be
calculated in UTC. |
By entering the local differentialfrom UTC, local arrival can be determined.
To access, press LCL line select key L2 or R2 as appropriate, input the required number followed by the ENTER key.
Entering a new time in either ETD or ETA, associated times will be adjusted.
The FPL/ PLT RTE SUMMARY page will adjust the time enroute
A CO RTE SUMMARY page is also associated with each company route.
| Press the
key and see---- |
To add a SID to the flight plan or route Press DEPART (L4)
|19//66|| From Menu
The route you selected.
The COMPRESSED option will take the flightplan or pilot route and compress the waypoint list for quick review of the route of flight. No editing can be done on this page.
Altitude information is provided.
|20|| From FPL FPLMenu
Press CLEARANCE and
The flightplan in a format that resembles an ATC clearance.
How to Return??
| From FPL Menu
press PPOS TO WPT and see-------|
The flightplan waypoints with the distance from the aircraft's present position and the time IF the speed was entered on the SUMMARY page.
In flight, time is calculated using the current aircraft ground speed,
flightplan forecast winds are entered, -
TIME will be so adjusted.
|22|| From FPL Menu
press DEPART and see(for example),-----|
By pressing the RUNWAY (R2)line select key, the selection can be made. The FMS then prompts for the selections available for SID etc. and these are all placed in the flight plan.
If there is a runway change ( to 16R) selecting the new runway can be selected.
Input 2 (for 16R) and press ENTER.
All the old information is replaced in the flightplan.
FPL (R5) returns to the Flight plan page.
|23||For more on |
XFILL FPL and RAIM PRED
| Depart and Arrive are explained in sequence|
DELETE FPL removes current flight plan only and is the same as 99 ENTER.
98 ENTER deletes all following when entered in a flightplan.
To delete a flight plan in the database the operator must enter PLT RTE / menue
|24|| From FPL MENU 1 |
go NEXT function key and see------
Press REF ALT line select (L1)
|25|| And see (for
TAWS and VNAV altitudes and database altitude constraints.
|26|| From FPL MENUE 2/2
WPT TO DEST (L2) and see-----|
Waypoint to destination is distance from a listed waypoint to the flightplan destination.
Time enroute for FPL on the ground or pilot route is a function of the speed entered on the SUMMARY page.
In flight, for the flightplan, time is calculated using the current aircraft ground speed or
if flightplan forecast winds are entered, TIME will be so adjusted .
| From FPL MENUE 2/2
WPT DEFN (L3) and see (for example)-----|
Shows how the waypoint are defined.
NOTE: A floating waypoint are those that are not terminated at a latitude/longitude position or fix, but by a set of conditions such as a course to altitude or heading to intercept.
NOTE: When a leg terminates with an altitude, that altitude must be met before the FMS will sequence to the next leg.
check on this
|28|| From FPL MENUE 2/2
press FPL WIND (L4) and see (for example)------ |
Forecasted winds can be entered into the flightplan through this page.
Pressing the line select key on the right side adjacent to the waypoint allows for a manual entry of wind direction (true heading) and velocity.
A manual wind entry need not be input at every waypoint. The FMS will interpolate winds between manual entries.
During flight the FMS will use the current wind for time calculations to the next manual wind entry waypoint and forecast winds from that point on.
Entries on this page will increase the accuracy of the FPL Summary Page
of the INVERT FPL option will result in the flightplan route of flight
being reversed. The FMS will present a new flightplan to the original
TEMP COMP will be covered in the approach section.
|30//66||The PLT RTE MENU----|
this is the only means of deleting routes (L4)
Both the DELETE RTE or DELETE FPL selections will delete the selected pilot route or the current flightplan.
A double push of the line select key is required.
Selection of PLT RTES returns to the PLT RTE catalog page.
|Creating waypoints (in a flightplan)|
The random waypoint is the LAS 220 radial at 40nm. Any unused name can be assigned.In this case LAS40 is used and entered into the cursor.
If the name LAS40 is already in use, modify it slightly to a waypoint name that is not in use.
|32||Press the Enter key and see----|
Note: The REF WPT (1L) is highlighted.
Since the random or pilot created waypoint is defined relative to LAS, LAS is entered into the REF WPT cursor field.
|33||Select (L3) to highlight---|
Input 220.0 and enter-----
The Enter key will move the cursor from RADIAL to DIST.
Input 40.0 (nm) and Enter to define the new waypoint.
The Lat and Long of the position will be calculated at line position (R2) and (R3)
|34||Accept WPT )L5) will then be presented and highlighted..|
Pressing the ACCEPT WPT line select key will move to a page that prompts for the next waypoint.
For more on pilot defined waypoints see the appendix section
| FUEL Planning||Fuel initialization should be accomplished before takeoff, but can amended anytime during the flight.|
|36|| Pressing the FUEL
key will access the first FUEL page. |
The basic weight or basic operating weight (BOW) displayed here is stored in the FMS configuration module programmed at time of installation.
If needed, the weight may be adjusted by using the line select key to place the cursor here.
Enter will move the cursor to the next line.
made in the PAX field will be calculated at the weight shown. (200).|
If the weight shown needs correction press the MENU function
|38|| And see-----|
The 5R line select key will place the cursor to allow the crew to set the 'AVG PAX WT'.
|39|| When the number of
PAX is entered, the FMS
computes the total passenger weight. ...at (L2)|
NOTE: The fuel initialization page will not suffice as a replacement for required weight and balance computations for certificate holders. But it sure helps!!!
The PAX total weight field then is active and will allow for direct entry, if necessary, and Enter.
Cursor moves to the CARGO
Enter as appropriate or 0.
NOTE: Fuel initialization requires that the PAX and CARGO field have values to calculate ZFW.
|41|| The FMS computes
fuel weight (ZFW) and the cursor moves to the FUEL ON
NOTE: If desired, the ZFW field can be entered directly by pressing the adjacent line select key. (L4)
An entry directly in the ZFW field will remove the PAX and CARGO entries.
| There are two entry
methods for entering FUEL ONBOARD. |
1) a direct fuel entry into the FUEL ONBOARD field.
2) BY TANK
Pressing the FUEL ONBOARD line select will present the FUEL ONBOARD page
|43|| And see-------|
When the TANK 1 quantity is entered, the cursor moves to TANK 2.
|44|| Line select keys 2L
will move the cursor up or down if needed. |
By pressing the Enter key on a blank tank cursor field the TOTAL fuel is computed.
Pressing the RTN line select key will cause a return to the FUEL page 1/5.
CAUTION: fuel quantity readings on the FMS are based the quantity inputs by the pilot, minus the fuel flow inputs from the aircraft.
There is no connection between FMS quantity readings and the aircraft's fuel quantity
|45|| Entry of the
ALTERNATE, HOLD, and EXTRA fields will result in the
FMS calculating the aircraft TOTAL RESRVS. A number entered into
each field is required to complete the calculation.|
An entry directly into the TOTAL RESRVS field can be made by pressing the R4 line select key.
NOTE: If the Fuel key is pressed after fuel data has been initialized, the first page displayed will be FUEL page 2/5 not 1/5 as shown.
|46|| Pressing the MENU
The FMS conversion calculator.
are made automatically by pressing any line select key on the left and
entering a number followed by pressing Enter . |
All lines are then filled.
It uses the standard weight of Jet A fuel @ 6.7 pounds per gallon.
The FUEL ENTRY line select R3 will toggle between BY TOTAL or BY TANK methods. And activates the FUEL ONBOARD page if desired.
in flight the FUEL function key will default to page 2/5.|
Flightplan information is displayed.
The L3 key enables entry of the UTC offset for the calculation of destination ETA local.
In this case -7
| Fancy stuff aside |
Line select key L2 allows input to the "TO" field to calculate a "what if" scenario.
Manually enter the alternate ICAO identifier or use the LIST function and ENTER. An (A) will indicate alternate airport. Alternate calculations are based on current aircraft fuel consumption and conditions from present position to overhead the alternate airport. Manual fuel flow and Manual groundspeed may be entered by using line select keys [1L] and [1R] for planning purposes and may be deleted by using the back key or exiting the fuel pages.
Current fuel summary information.
| Fancy stuff aside.|
On Fuel pages 2 and 3, line select key 1L displays current fuel flow.
By pressing the line select key an alternative fuel flow can be manually entered that will allow for hypothetical fuel planning scenarios.
To return to actual fuel flow, press the 1L line select key, press the BACK key followed by the ENTER key.
Press NEXT And
Aircraft weight information is displayed along with specific range and other information as shown.
Press Next and see-----|
Fuel flow inputs received from each engine, and totals used.
Should fuel flow input fail or be inaccurate, pressing the appropriate ENG line select key L1 or L2 ??will allow for manual fuel flow entries.
NOTE In the event of a fuel flow failure lasting longer than four minutes, the flow field will show FAIL. To reboot place the cursor over the FAIL with the adjacent line select key and pressing the BACK key followed by the Enter key.
NOTE: To reset fuel used, use the R1 R2 select keys. Place the cursor into the field, enter a 0 and press the ENTER key.
NOTE APU fuel flow monitor is not configured in the 400.
plan analysis and edit see tile 60 |
Flight plan unlinked tile 63 and tile 80
|See also appendix on pilot and oceanic waypoints|
|55||“XFILL” in Multiple FMS intallations|
A “XFILL” option is available to crossfill initialization, flightplan, and fuel data. In addition, other X fill features are available when needed by the pilot.
The FMS will have been configured at installation for either PUSH or PULL. With the PUSH mode the transmitting FMS will initiate the crossfill process. With the PULL mode the receiving FMS will initiate the process.
Dependant on SOP, we suggest the prefered mode should be the Push and that pilot flying (PF) refrain from FMS operation in proximity to ground.
|see UNS configuration sequence for more or press|
Data/ Maint/Config/Fms Config/ -next- /Xfill and see
|On the INIT 1/1 page MSTR XFILL
and XFILL are options are presented that can be selected. XFILL will
crossfill date, time, and position. The MSTR XFILL will crossfill
initial page, flightplan, and fuel information. Through the crossfill
bus each FMS is made aware of the crossfill status of the other FMS. |
Note; Before the MSTR XFILL option is made available the transmitting FMS must show that initialization, flightplan, and fuel information is complete and available.
The procedure for the receiving FMS is to turn it on only, do not activate the ACCEPT key.
Note the bottom right two comments are not valid 400 data
| On Page DATA 1/4 the MSTR XFILL option is also available. |
when pressed---See below
|58|| a FPL XFILL 1/1 page with a line select key for a “TO” or “FROM” the other FMS. R2|
When pressed see------
A CROSSFILL RECEIVE page showing that the crossfill is in progress.
This page will remain until the crossfill is complete.
|FLIGHTPLAN ANALYSIS AND EDITING|
1/12 is the first of 12 pages of flight plan. The “TO” waypoint is
identified by the change in color and by the “>” sign. When a SID is
used for the departure, as is the case here, the first navigation
leg will often reflect a climb in the takeoff corridor in
accordance with standard takeoff procedure. In this case, runway course
to 833ft MSL equals 400ft AGL. The FMS will then command the aircraft
to turn and intercept the 341° course to NEZUG*. The identifier, NEZUG
is followed by an "* ". This indicates that it is an overfly waypoint,
requiring the aircraft to physically fly over the waypoint. The
aircraft will then turn right as indicated by the “→” to a heading of
|61||Upon crossing the PAE 139°
radial the aircraft will be commanded to turn right to a heading
of 165° to intercept the SEA 146° course to SUMMA intersection, as
indicated on FLP2/2 page. |
ETA time is computed based on groundspeed when airborne. Altitudes displayed to the right of the page are advisory only.
NOTE: When a leg terminates with an altitude, that altitude must be met before the FMS will sequence to the next leg.
|If a runway change occurs, a new SID can be selected by pressing the menue key, then DEPART.|
The new SID routing will replace the old SID routing.
the SID, Route of Flight, STAR, and approach are linked together to
make the flightplan, a common point between each part is required to
maintain continuity. When that point does not exist, the FMS places a
flashing “NO LINK” in the flightplan to alert the pilot to edit the flightplan. |
To remove the “NO LINK” press the adjacent line select key (L3)which will bring up an overlay with DEL. Pressing the DEL line select key (R1) will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the the line (7 in this case).
NOTE: It is important to review the route or flightplan after linking any SID's or STAR's to address any “NO LINK” messages that may have been added.
When a VECTOR is included in a procedure, this defaults the FMS to FMS heading mode requiring pilot intervention in the form of a FMS heading change, a manual leg change, or a Direct To (DTO).
In such cases, it may be prudent to leave the vector leg and the “NO LINK”until clearance is issued to bypass the vector leg.
NOTE: When a SID or STAR terminates in a VECTOR, the FMS uses an arbitrary 50nm to define the vector. This additional mileage is added to the overall flightplan distance.
Press the line select key for the VOR LKV and the overlay window appears. as below----
Flight plan unlinked see also tile 80
|Showing DEL, INFO, TUNE, and OVFLY.|
As above to remove any waypoint press the adjacent line select key (L3) which will bring up the overlay window.
Pressing the DEL line select key (R1) will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the line
The the LKV frequency can be tuned by pressing the TUNE (R3) line select key. (ARCDU in FMS mode).
Pressing the INFO line select key will access information about this VOR. as LKV 1/1 page.
The TUNE option is again available.
A waypoint can be designated as an overfly
waypoint by pressing the OVFLY line select key (R4).
LKV* and CANCEL OVFLY is a toggle action.
Note: OFFST is a vertical function that is made available when the To waypoint has a associated altitude.
|65||The LKV* identifies the waypoint as over fly.|
To cancel any overfly waypoint request again highlight the fix as above, see the overlay window, as shown, and the CNCL OVFLY comment.
Pressing the R 4 button returns the designation to OVFLY
|To add a new waypoint to the flightplan, first place the cursor at the point on the page where the waypoint will be entered.|
i.e. L4 to insert at line 8 of the flightplan after LKV.
waypoints may be added with use of the LIST function or by direct entry
with the alphanumeric keys - - -as LMT in this case.|
|68||When the new waypoint is entered, the existing waypoint will be moved down.|
A pilot waypoint can be created and input directly in the flightplan.
|DTO (Direct to Opertation)|
|69a||The FMS is capable of navigating to any point that is defined or can be defined. |
Pressing the DTO function key displays the standard DTO page with the TO waypoint as the default in the cursor field.
In this example shown the current flight plan is listed as the 1-5 pages.
The crew may select any waypoint from flightplan by number, by use of LIST function, or direct input.
|70||Pressing the Enter key will move to a page that prompts for the next waypoint.|
Select the NX waypoint and press Enter . If no NX waypoint is selected, the flightplan will become unlinked from the NAV page.
For more see flightplan unlinked discussion.
Note this example is unconnected to the tile above but leads the one below
NAV 1/3 is now displayed with the FMS directing the aircraft from
(PPOS) present position direct to LAS40 with DINGO as the NX waypoint.|
Any “TO” waypoint that is followed with a “NX” waypoint is “linked” to the flightplan and will appear on the FPL pages prior to the “NX” waypoint.
Note: Any waypoints defined under the Navigation Reference System are included in the SCN 80X navigation database for point to point RNAV operation.
|72||The DTO function can be used together with the LIST function to aid the pilot during an emergency divert to a nearby airport.|
Select the DTO function to bring up the DTO page.
The LIST function key will use the aircraft position as the reference waypoint.
From the LIST page select APT(airport).
Airports and their distance to the aircraft will be listed.
Use of the PLN LANG line select key (plain language) will assist in the selection of a divert airport.
Information on this airport can be obtained from the NAV directory under the DATA page 1.
The number of the closest airport is defaulted into the cursor.
In this case we choose #4
|The selected airport, KLKV is entered as the TO waypoint and a prompt for next appears. Entering a NX waypoint is not required.|
Pressing the Enter key with no entry in the NX field, will result in the airport automatically being entered at the end of the flightplan.
With the airport at the end of the flightplan, entering an approach is easy.
normal navigation, three NAV pages can be displayed. When needed,
additional pages are added as in the case when approach mode is active
or if the command heading mode is in use.|
NAV page 1 and 2 are similar in display.
In-flight, NAV page 1 and 2 will display from (FR), to (TO), and next (NX) waypoints with course, distance, time remaining, and estimated time of arrival in UTC for the next waypoint.
XTK (Crosstrack) defines actual aircraft distance right or left of course centerline.
Phase of flight (“T”terminal shown),
Phases are E (enroute), T (terminal) and A (approch)
WND, (Wind information displayed is direction true enroute and terminal, and magnetic when approach active)
GS (ground speed) ,
NAV 1 will display
ANP actual navigation performance, -- the radius of the circle of position based on a 95% probability that the aircraft is with in the circle.
RNP. required navagation performance, for the phase of flight (E +/- 5, T +/-1, or A+/-0.3)
NAV page 2 will display in addition:
TAILWIND or HEADWIND component,
BRG (bearing) from the aircraft position to the “TO” waypoint,
TKE (track error) in degrees right or left of the course centerline or angle of the path over the ground relative to the (desired) course.
HGD and MNVR (R1 & 2) are discussed below.
|NAV page 3 displays |
and the most significant NAV sensor(s) currently used. When two sensors have close to equal weighting in the NAV solution, they will be displayed together under NAV MODE, such as GPS/DME.
By pressing the 1R line select key, RNP can be entered to meet the current flight requirements as discussed in the two tiles below.
It can also be entered directly on the nav 2 page.
Also available are line select keys for UPDATE SENSors, HOLD POSition (95)and SENSORS, (94) .
There is no use of UPDATE SENS
the FMS cannot connect the current NAV leg (the “FM” “TO” leg) to the
flightplan, a FPL UNLINKED banner will appear at the top of the
When the FPL UNLINKED message is present, on NAV page 1 or 2 the “NX” line will be empty.
The “NX” line is the interface between the NAV leg and the flightplan.
Once the waypoint in the “NX” line moves to the “TO” line, it no longer belongs to the flightplan. If the flightplan is deleted or modified, the waypoints in the “FM” “TO” lines will be unaffected, but the waypoint in the “NX” line will be deleted/empty.
It may be correct to have the FPL UNLINKED message if the current NAV leg does not have a follow on waypoint; such as going direct to a fix and expecting vectors.
If, however, the NAV leg needs to reconnect to the flightplan, either use the DTO function or press the “NX” line select key.
When there is no waypoint in this line, the “NX” key will respond by listing the flightplan waypoints.
Enter the reference number of the follow on waypoint and the FMS will connect the NAV leg to the flightplan.
The NAV leg will now sequence into the flightplan.
|82a||NO LINK's and GAP's|
A GAP is a break in the route designed to prevent the navigation
computer from making an automatic leg change. Gaps have no effect until the route is copied into the flight plan.
To, insert a gap using the following procedure:
1. Use the NEXT and PREV keys to display the desired waypoint.
2. Use the LSKs to position the cursor over the waypoint that will
follow the GAP.
3. Press the LIST key to access the LIST Page.
4. Press GAP, LSK [3R]. The display will return to the Route Page
and the gap (*GAP*) will have been inserted.
Gaps are deleted from the route in the same manner as waypoints.
|MANUAL LEG CHANGE OPERATION|
ATC gives vectors to intercept a NAV leg or airway which is not
currently the active NAV leg manual leg changes can be made from the NA
page 1 or 2. |
Press the line select key adjacent to the “FR” or “TO” field, as desired. (L1 ) and see---- NAV LEG page.
A list of current flightplan waypoints is available for selection. There are 6 pages of possibilities that can be accessed by the next key. presented in this view.
Enter the number for the new “FR” waypoint and press Enter .
|84||The cursor will move to the “TO“ field and default to the next sequential waypoint. |
Either push Enter a second time which will return the screen back to NAV page 1 or 2 with the new "FR"– "TO" waypoints,
Input the number of the desired “TO“ waypoint and then push Enter .
Otherwise waypoint name can be entered by using the List function or typing the name in directly.
|85||HDG, / CMD HDG (Command/ FMS Heading Mode)|
|The FMS has two heading functions, procedural|
Procedural heading when the FMS is navigating and aligns the HSI course arrow track. No action is required on the part of the pilot; intercepts and leg sequencing are controlled by the FMS.
Command Heading (CMD HDG) is enabled when selecting HDG (R1) on the NAV page and allows the pilot to control the heading of the aircraft through the FMS.
When HDG is pressed the current heading of the aircraft will be presented in flashing mode.
|87||Input the desired heading and press Enter .|
The FMS will ask to confirm the turn direction or allow the pilot to change the turn direction.
To change the turn direction, use the + key. Press Enter to confirm the turn direction.
The FMS will turn and the R is removed from the window
CNCL HDG is available at the bottom of the window.
|88||Once the FMS is placed in CMD HDG, it will stay in command heading. |
There are three ways to exit command heading,
1) use DTO.
2) use CNCL HDG (R5). FMS returns to the FR/TO NAV leg, and turns to the intercept angle required depending on crosstrack distance -- maximum intercept angle will be 45°.
3) as illustrated- enter a new heading that will intercept the current NAV leg and then tell the FMS to intercept.
|89||An INTERCEPT option will be presented with a valid intercept track (?) angle exists between 1°and 115°at line (R2).|
Pressing INTERCEPT will display the INTERCEPT subheading, resulting in the FMS intercepting and joining the current FR/TO leg.
HDG is represented -- CNCL HDG and INTERCEPT remains till track.
At anytime there is a need to cancel intercept, pressing HDG SEL will cause the FMS to revert back to command heading in a non-intercept mode; the INTERCEPT option will again be presented.
|90||Another command heading function |
ATC - "turn left / right a specific number of degrees."
1)Press CMG HDG
2) Press the “L” or “R” key to select the direction of turn and see----
3) enter the number of degrees of turn required.
4) Press Enter will result in the new heading being
5) Press Enter again will cause the FMS to command a turn to the computed heading.
|91||If it becomes necessary to set RNP to other than default, press line select key 5R.|
Enter the desired RNP and press Enter .
|92||The (M) will indicate that the RNP is manually set. To remove the manual entry and revert to default, press the RNP line select key, press Back followed by Enter .|
|93||NAV 3/3 page = NAV 4/4 page|
|94|| SENSORS line on the Nav 3 page( R4) select key is a shortcut to DATA page 3|
POS line select key(L5) on the NAV 3 page will display the HOLD POS page. ---|
ALSO When pressed, will take a snapshot of FMS and all sensor position’s at the moment . The frozen FMS position is displayed and line select keys are available for all sensors connected.
With the selection of a NAV sensor, the right hand field will display the sensor position and below it is the difference in position between this sensor and the FMS position. Each available sensor may be compared to the FMS position in this way. While the coordinates shown on the HOLD POS page are frozen, the FMS will continue to navigate normally, and this view of sensor positions has no effect on navigation.
Press the 1L line select key to move to the DEFINE POS page.
CAUTION: Manually updating a FMS that uses GPS for
navigation could result in the GPS being deselected and the FMS reverting to DR navigation. Strongly recommend that manual update not be used unless there is a loss of ALL NAV sensors except ADC and heading.
| and see------|
The cursor will default to the REF WPT field. (at L1)
The identifier of a known position may be entered directly or by the LIST function.
(If the correct hold position coordinates are known, they
could be entered directly by pressing the coordinates field line select key 2R. This will allow entry of known coordinates or the GPS POS by pressing the line select key [3R] if GPS is operational. )
|97||The display will now show the calculated radial and distance of the FMS from the referenced facility.|
Check of the aircraft VOR and DME reveals that it (as illustrated) was on the EHF 180-degree radial at 1.5nm at the time the HOLD line select key was pressed. To update the FMS position to reflect the VOR radial and DME, enter 180.0 for the radial and 1.5 for the distance and press Enter or ACCEPT.
The FMS will be updated to the new position and a position update will be transmitted to all sensors.
|99||Nav menue pages|
|100//||NAV DISPLAY (cross track display scaling)|
Press the Menu key when NAV page is displayed).
Crosstrack Instrument Display Sensitivity is
automatically selected by the phase of flight. However---
Press the NAV DISPLAY line select key.
for details on default scaling see appendix phase of flight (default scaling)
A selection of a scale is available
It will result in that scale staying in effect through a phase of flight change.
Selecting the TERMINAL line select key or the APPROACH line select key will change the CDI scaling, but will not change the GPS and FMS position error alarm limits. This must be accomplished by manually changing the RNP.
The following apply to CDI display sensitivity. Full scale deflection (2 dots)
Enroute display sensitivity + 5.0nm
Terminal display sensitivity + 1.0nm
Approach display sensitivity + 0.3nm
|MAP DISPLAY option|
Allows the pilot to inhibit/declutter the display of the missed approach segment on the mapping mode of the pilot flight display.
From the Nav page select menu and see-----
press Map display Line (L2)
M/APPR is an on off toggle
The MAP DISPLAY will automatically turn on if any
of the following occur:
1. Either the TO or the NX waypoint is a missed approach segment waypoint.
2. The approach is cancelled prior to reaching the FAF
3. The approach is exited because of a manual leg change
4. A new approach is inserted into the flightplan
|105||LAT/LONG XING--Feature that will alert the pilot when a desired latitude or longitude is being crossed.|
from theNav menu page
the cursor will default to the first LAT field.
Enter the latitude in degrees and minutes... and enter
note Erase is active when field is operational.
the FMS will calculate the longitude for the crossing waypoint. In
addition, the FMS will calculate Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and
Distance To Go (DTG).|
Likewise if a long x ing is desired - -
With the cursor in the LAT field, pressing the Enter key will move the cursor to the LONG field and input the required longitude in degrees and minutes -
and again the FMS will make the required calculations
|108||When within 2nm of the LAT/LONG waypoint, the|
FMS will present the message LAT/LONG XING
|109||FIX Abeam Point & Radial Crossing|
|go to the|
NAV MENU and s
elect the FIX line select key.
see FIX 1/9 page.
There are 9 pages allowing for 9 fixes.
Enter the FIX for which you are to report abeam, the FMS will present the current radial and distance from that fix.
At the bottom of the page is the calculated abeam point, with ETA (estimated time of arrival) and DTG (distance to go).
The “ABEAM ON/OFF” option will toggle the abeam alert.
“ERASE FIX” will clear the fix cursor field to allow entry of a new fix.
|111||With “ABEAM ON”|
2nm before reaching the abeam point the FMS will present an ABEAM WAYPOINT ALERT message.
|When past the abeam point, the abeam field will|
present ***. (L&R4)
To get to the RAD field, press the adjacent line select key. input radial desired and Enter
The FIX page will calculate a distance, ETA, and DTG to a crossing radial from the related fix.
No message will be presented when the entered radial is crossed.
The fields will present **** upon crossing the radial
To get to the DIS field, press the adjacent line select
key and press Enter .
By entering a distance into the DIS field, the FMS
will calculate the crossing radial for that distance.
The fields will present **** upon crossing the distance ??
|115||MNVR [ (R2) Nav Page] page functions Holding|
The FMS will define holding patterns, determine holding pattern entry procedures, and fly three types of holding patterns;
1) (HM), hold to manual termination
2) (HF) hold to fix , and
3) (HA) hold to altitude .
The FMS NAV database will include holding patterns required to complete the SID, STAR, or approach procedure.
A pilot can only create an HM .
|press HOLDING DEFN and see---|
A waypoint can be entered into the HOLD FIX cursor field by
1) direct type in,
2) use of the LIST key, or
3) selecting a waypoint from the flightplan list.
This will allow the holding pattern to be entered into the flightplan. i.e. BASER to select it as the FIX
The FMS flies holding patterns according to TERPS procedures, but is allowed to fly in countries using PANOPS procedures.
The HOLDING definition page will be displayed if the flightplan contains a holding plan required to complete the route .
In which case the DTO HOLD is made available at Line select (L5).
|To edit the holding pattern inbound radial INBD use the adjacent line select key (L2), to activate the field.|
Input desired and Enter. The cursor will advance to complete the editing.
The DIR field is the course outbound. If the clearance is to hold on a radial, the radial can be entered into the DIR field and the INBD field will be automatically calculated and entered.
The holding pattern turn direction may be changed
by using the + key or entry of L or R key.
The cursor will automatically advance to TIME. Time is entered in minutes and tenths of a minute and will default to one minute.
If a non standard distance is required for the inbound leg - manually select the DIST line select key.
Distance for the inbound leg is entered in nautical miles and tenths of a nautical mile. When distance is selected, the diagram will show DIST for the inbound leg.
The entry procedure is calculated based on the navigational leg prior to the holding waypoint.
Depending on the inbound course to the hold, the FMS will enter the pattern using a direct, teardrop, or parallel entry, per standard procedure. Based on the dividing line between entry procedures, the FMS will allow a Ī 20° area where either entry may be used.
|118||By pressing the ENTRY line select key, (R4)and see---|
alternate entry procedure may be selected if available. note
If not with in the Ī 20° area, no option will be presented.
the holding definition completed, Pressing the ARM HOLD line select key
will enter the holding definition into the flightplan.|
|120||A DTO HOLD option is then presented and can be used to go DTO (direct to) to the holding entry waypoint.|
1) ONLY An off flightplan waypoint will present a DTO HOLD option.
2) The HOLDING page will retain the defination for the holding pattern if a another page is selected.
3) If a new holding fix is selected, the current holding pattern defination will be lost.
note example screens does not match example above
|121||The holding fix will be coded as overfly with the addition of the *|
The ARROW indicates direction of turn, in this case, a right hand turn.
HLD indicates it’s a holding pattern and 115° indicates the inbound course.
The terminator for the holding pattern is HOLD (see line 24), which indicates it is a manually terminated holding pattern.
|If you should change your mind!!!|
Prior to reaching the hold, pressing the DISARM HOLD line select key will produce the HOLDING page with an option to DISARM HOLD.
Pressing the DISARM HOLD line select key will remove the holding pattern from the flightplan and the aircraft will continue on .
The DISARM HOLD function will not remove the holding pattern if the FMS is committed .
The subheading HOLDING indicates the FMS is in the hold. see below (125)
then why is it there???
The NAV page will present HOLD ARMED when inbound TO to the holding fix.
|When within 15 seconds of crossing the holding fix, the FMS will present HOLDING.
At this time the FMS holding defination is locked and the FMS has
calculated the affect of wind. The pattern will be flown so as to fly
the inbound leg according to the defined time or distance.|
|126||When the holding patten is entered, the leg terminator (HOLD) will be the TO waypoint.|
With the holding leg active, the HSI course arrow will define the holding pattern inbound leg, the milage window will be line of sight nautical miles to the holding fix, and the FMS bearing pointer will point to the holding waypoint.
|//131||With the aircraft established in holding, there are three ways to exit the holding pattern.|
3) CMD HDG
1) The direct to DTO function with the selection of a new waypoint will automatically cancel the holding pattern.
|127||select the MNVR (R2)key |
and see - - - the Maneuver holding page
2) Selecting PROCEED will result in the aircraft finishing the holding pattern and upon crossing the holding fix the next time will result in the aircraft exiting the holding pattern and proceeding on course.
|128||and see on NAV p[age |
Selecting proceed reconnects the FROM and TO to nav lines to the flightplan.
Note: unconnected example
CMD HDG function is used, then with the new heading active, manually select the new NAV leg using the manual leg change technique.
|PSEUDO VOR OPERATION|
The FMS provides the capability to track to or from any known waypoint on a programmed radial; similar to tracking on a VOR radial.
|Caution Before entering this mode pilots should ensure thay are in heading mode or command heading mode.|
|130||This Pseudo VOR feature is accessed from the NAV page, by pressing the MNVR line select key.|
and see the MANEUVER page,
select the PVOR line select key. (R2)
and see------The PVOR definition page ....
Highlighting the current "TO" waypoint from the flightplan, and subsequent waypoints will be displayed in a list. The desired PVOR point may be:
1) chosen from the list presented,
2) manually entered at the cursor, or
3) the LIST function key may be used.
After the waypoint is identified, the cursor will move to the DESIRED TRACK field.
|132||A desired track may be entered directly and the radial for inbound tracking will be calculated...|
By using the line select key or Enter key to move the cursor to the INBOUND field (R3), an inbound radial may be defined and the desired track will be calculated.
|133||Once the definition is made, the ACCEPT line selectkey will be highlighted.|
Pressing ACCEPT will change the current NAV leg to the PVOR and an intercept angle of up to 45ľ towards the defined radial will be commanded.
|134||To fly outbound on a radial, first select a waypoint|
If the waypoint is on the flightplan,
do not select it from the flightplan list, enter it with
1) LIST key or
2) type it in manually.
Suggested place a GAP following the flightplan waypoint (at NX). This will help prevent inadvertent leg sequencing.
Again, if on a heading that will intercept, remember to press the INTERCEPT option on command heading or the aircraft will fly through the PVOR course.
|SXTK selected crosstrack operation||parallel navigation|
Select MNVR on the Nav 1 or 2 page
see the MANEUVER page
select SXTK. (R3)
Note : enables navigation parallel to the current NAV LEG only. in 802 software
|137||see SXTK field cursor on the NAV page. (L4)|
A desired offset may be input either left or right of course by using the +/- key to select left or right of course and then inputing the amount of offset in 10ths of a nautical mile, followed by the Enter key.
The FMS will command a turn to intercept the SXTK course.
The intercept angle will be needed, but limited to a maximum of 45°.
i.e. 5.0 has been entered for the crosstrack distance.
|138||On a map display, the original
course line will remain and show the relationship of the SXTK course on
the HSI to the original course.|
To cancel the selected crosstrack, use the MNVR line select key then press CNCL SXTK. The FMS will then command a change in heading to intercept the original NAV leg.
The selected crosstrack function will parallel the “From To leg” until either cancelled or reaching the next leg change over point. Upon reaching it will
(1) intercept the next leg and proceed on course.
(2) intercept an extension of the next leg.
(3) turn to a 45° intercept angle and intercept the new leg.
|139||PERF 1 Performance|
When airborne, by pressing the PERF function key, see----
the PERF 1/1 page provides a synopsis of in-flight performance information found on the fuel and flightplan pages. Manual entries may not be made on this page.
Some are the result of input from other pages--
|141||ETP/PNR - -- Equal Time Point & Point of no Return |
From the PERF 1 page select the menu function key and see------
Temp selection is a toggle between Fahrenheit and Centigrade at (R 1/2) line select.
Select the ETP/PNR ( L5) line select key
| and see----|
Begin on ETP/PNR 1/4 by entering departure and arrival airports and possible divertion airports.
Many crews never go past this page as the ***shown in this illustration will be filled in cruise operations from the known winds.
|143||To calculate ETP and PNR, go to page 2 enter the COAST OUT and COAST IN airports from the list compiled from page 1.|
Information for FPL WINDS, FOB, FF, and TAS will be pre filled by the FMS if available. WINDS OUT and WINDS IN will be filled from forecast flightplan winds if available or can be manually entered by the pilot.
|144||For ENG OUT and PRESSURE LOSS ETP/PNR calculations, required information must be entered manually on page 3.|
and what is menu
do believe these numbers come from flight plan??
|145||Display of ETP/PNR information is in page 4|
ENGINE OUT, and
by pressing 1L line select key.
the page of your "dreams".
|VNAV Vertical Enroute Navigation Operations|
|Prior to any Vnav operations the FMS first requires a bottom of descent point and altitude.|
While this information can be input on the Vnav Path page the altitude translation/programming between this page and the flight plan pages can be problematic.
It is therefore recommended that the pilot first input the suspected??/desired/cleared altitude into the FPL page - - in this case 13000' at DINGO is input by highlighting the (R4) position, inputting 13000' and Enter.
However no calculation can be made with the *no link* in the flight plan between yor present position and the descent point, and the so that must be removed. -- - -
highlight ( L3) and Del
IN the ALT/FL field. If 4 or 5 digits are entered, the entry will be interpreted as an altitude. If 2 or 3 digits are entered, the entry will be interpreted as a flight level and, once the E key is pressed, the letters “FL”will be inserted ahead of the digits. To enter 850 feet, it must be entered as 0850 or the FMS will consider it a flight level.
|148||Press VNAV Function key|
(Vnav Path definition page. The cursor will default to the TGT V/S line. (R1) awaiting crew input. Line (R1) will be blank if no value has been entered on the Menu page.)
(If the crew has not followed the recomendation above then this is what will be seen - as the FMS assumes the vertical path is to the next waypoint with a recommended /programed altitude. - -and Dingo is not shown. This then required additional programming and is a distraction.)
Press the Menu function key
|and see-------VNAV MENU Defaults page|
allows for creating :
1) TGT V/S. (R2)
The TGT V/S can be changed as desired on the VNAV PATH page (see above) without affecting the default value. When a Default value is entered (-2100 in this case) that value will be projected on the VNAV Path page then it is first entered.
2) TGT FPA ( R3)
Used for setting enroute VNAV FPA. (-3.00 in this case )
TGT FRA is an FMS tool designed to establish a flight path angle to minimize power adjustments during descent. Recommend starting at -3.00° and adjusting as necessary.
The enroute FPA maximum of 6 deg. and approach FPA or 4 deg. (if no Steep Appr. Sup.) is set within the aircrafts configuration at purchase.
Note: approach VNAV FPA is preset in the database.
|150||When an approach transition or,
in some cases, a STAR procedure is entered into the flightplan, the FMS
will calculate vertical crossing altitudes based on the TGT FPA entered
by the pilot. |
Note: default is set at 3 deg.
An “X” preceding the altitude in the flightplan and on the VNAV page indicates the altitude was calculated by the FMS.
FMS uses the final approach course fix (FACF) or "gate fix"
pseudo glideslope crossing altitude to back calculate the enroute
waypoint VNAV crossing altitudes. |
Database altitude restrictions, “at, at-or-above, or at-or-below”, are entered into the calculation to insure these restrictions are not violated. These altitude restrictions may result in the FMS creating an angle that is different than the TGT FPA entered by the pilot.
|152||Thus if the recomendations above
were followed and the FMS is navigating to Dingo , when the the VNAV
function key is pressed the crew would see----|
In this scenario they have preselected a 2100' rate of descent and it entered it at (R1). They confirm and enter.
Thus they have created a TOD (top of descent point) and when VNAV is selected the vertical path indicator will appear on the PFD and arming and descent on path will take place. In this senario the vpath will contunue on down to cross Tacub at 9189" unless some constraint (alt sel) overides that program.
When ATC requires a level off at an offset of say 10 miles before a fix there are two ways to approach the issue.
use the VWPT SEL overlay - - - -
From the VNAV PATH page select the To v waypoint
( L3) in this case DINGO.
This will deliver the VWPT page.
Select the reference number for the desired waypoint from the list, and press Enter .
|156||The cursor remains over the
waypoint to allow the offset to be entered. In this case -10 has
been input and Entered. |
Note: The option is + or - with - ( before the fix) the default.
The +/- numeric key toggles the "+ " and "- ".
Select/highlight the fix of interest on the FPL page and see the overlay window--------
Select the OFFST line ( R5) and see VNAV PATH window as below
Note: If the offset fix does not have an associated altitude in the flight plan the OFFST line will be blank.
|158||Once the required offset is Entered the cursor moves to the altitude field and--- |
|159||Once that is entered the cursor will move to the TGT V/S field.|
Again the defaulted TGT V/S - 2100 is shown and,
The distance and time are computed to the TOD and the FPA of –2.95° will be displayed. Once the FPA is calculated it becomes the criteria for the descent. Changes in ground speed or direction of flight will result in the TGT V/S changing in order to fly the FPA.
Note: A holding pattern entered in the flight plan between the aircraft and the TOD will result in cancelation of the TOD calculation. An attempt to re-enter the TOD information will result in a LEG RESRICTION message being presented. No TOD calculation can be made until the aircraft is past the holding pattern or the holding pattern is removed from the flightplan.
|Crews can create a
vertical profile by entering altitudes for follow on waypoints,
in the flightplan. Adjacent to the flightplan waypoints are dashed
lines that can be selected by the adjacent line select key for entry of
an @ altitude or flight level. Waypoints selected and their altitudes will automatically appear on the VNAV page.|
It is recomended that the VNAV page not be used for this function.
|162||A total of 6 VNAV waypoints can be viewed in the VNAV pages. Two on page 1 and four on page 2.|
Distance, FPA (flight path angle), and VSR (vertical speed required) is calculated between the each waypoint.
The CNCL VNV (cancel VNAV) line select key is available on page 2 only.
Pressing the CNCL VNAV line select key (L5) at any time will cause the mode to cancel and VNAV displays will go invalid.
|163||Two minutes prior to the TOD, the “TOP OF DESCENT ALERT” message will appear and remain on the message page until passing TOD.|
NOTE: To capture FMS VNAV the pilot must first acknowledge the TOP OF DESCENT ALERT message, and then arm flight guidance VNAV.
VNAV is not available prior to this point??
|Fifteen seconds prior to the TOD, a VPATH CAPTURE message will appear indicating capture of the vertical path.|
|165||Fifteen seconds prior to a vertical waypoint the VERTICAL WPT ALERT message will be presented.|
|166||when the vpath is captured see-----|
VDEV and an indication of deviation, in feet, above or below the programmed flight path will replace the TOD advisory .
The HSI vertical deviation indicator will display this deviation . Vertical steering signals will be provided to a compatible FGS.
|167||VTO (VERTICAL DIRECT TO)|
|To access the Vertical Direct To mode on the VNAV PATH page, press the VTO line select key. |
This mode allows for creating an immediate descent FPA
to a vertical waypoint.
The VERTICAL TO page displays a listing of all defined VNAV waypoints.
Input the reference number of the desired waypoint in the cursor field. After Enter is pressed the display will change back to ------
|170||the VNAV PATH 1/2 page|
The TGT V/S will be the vertical speed required when VTO was selected.
The VTO line select key (R5) is still available to establish a new vertical clearance.
Using DTO or the DTO Holding Fix feature will not cancel the VNAV mode for waypoints prior to TOD.
VNAV in holds is complex kaka, avoid it. see page 158
SCN 80X cannot fly a descent in a procedure turn. A manually controlled descent by the pilot will be required to fly a procedure turn approach transition that requires a descent.
CAUTION: Once a descent is commenced, entering a higher TGT V/S to comply with a “best rate” clearance from ATC may result in the aircraft leveling off and proceeding to a newly computed TOD and FPA based on the higher descent rate. If ATC request a “best rate” descent, DO NOT use FMS VNAV.
are reminded that vertical navigation is point to point only - -
it is not along track. That is to say that if you have vpath'ed to a
gate fix and the along track is not direct as in a RNAV approach T
path, a DME arc etc you are flying on a BOWL and the vspeed will
vary as the turns are initiated. Similarly it cannot
calculate for the short or smart turn.|
Approaches consist 3 parts: transition (arrival), approach, and missed. These segments are loaded individually to make up a complete approach.
Consists of a series of legs or procedures to align it with the final approach. It may be edited by the crw, the remainder will be unaffected
Procedure Turn (No-PT) |
No procedure turn or holding pattern
A course reversal to align with the final approach course.
| Teardrop |
A specific course for a specific distance and inbound to intercept the final approach course.
When a Category A & B and a Category C & D procedure are presented on the chart, only the Cat C & D will be in the database.
Pattern In Lieu Of A Procedure Turn |
Another type of course reversal, also used to descend to an altitude more in line with the final approach fix altitude
A constant distance path relative to a DME until turning to the final approach
|178|| APPR PLAN (FMS APPROACH PLAN)|
|APPR PAN (L5)will be presented on the flight plan menu 2 page onlywhen an approach is programed into the flightplan, |
It is an important part of the review process.
|APPR PLAN 1/3 will provide a basic definition of the approach selected to include;|
1) type of approach,
2) NAV facility, if any,
3) status of GPS for the approach,
4) final approach information.
|181||Page 2 and 3 and any pages to follow will present final segment waypoints, course, distance, glideslope angle, and altitudes.|
|182||This information can be used to help determine where to configure the aircraft, to determine glideslope intercept altitudes, and to determine approach power settings based on vertical flight path angle.|
|TEMP COMP (Temperature Compensation)||A colder than standard
temperature (, ISA) will result in the true MSL altitude being lower
than the indicated altitude . FMS created glideslope uses barometric
altimeter inputs to create the "glidepath" A correction table has been incorporated in the FMS.|
|184||TEMP COMP, (L2) is available on FPL MENU 2/2.|
The ARPT ELEV will be prefilled with the airport or runway elevation from the flight plan approach, at LSK [2R] but can be manually overwritten.
By entering a temperature, either Celsius or Fahrenheit, into the ARPT TEMP line, altitude adjustments can be made.
The temperature range that can be entered is 0ľC to -70ľC and +32ľF to 94ľF.
(M) under ARPT indicates a manual input.
A “calculator function” is available such that any altitude can be entered on Temperature Compensation Page 1 at LSK [4L], and the resulting temperature correction will be displayed.
|187||With temperature compensation on and a -30°C temperature entered, the altitudes are adjusted.|
Temperature compensation will be projected throughout the enroute VNAV waypoints.
TCMP on the flightplan and NAV page will indicate the temperature compensation feature is active and the T prior to the altitude indicates a temperature corrected altitude.
|188|| and see----------|
CANCEL replaces ACTIVATE and is the crew's means of turning this feature off.
The subheading TEMP COMP ON signifies that temperature compensation is active. Temp comp will stay active for any approach selected at the current airport listed on the flightplan. Deleting the current airport from the flightplan, deleting the flightplan, or cycling FMS power will cancel temp comp.
Note: Any manual change to airport temperature or elevation may deactivate Vertical Navigation if it is active. (5-120)
| Vectors in the
Arrival (transition) |
An example is the arrival into Tucson International (KTUS). The DINGO5 STAR terminates at MAVVA intersection with a heading to vector leg of 075 deg.
It will require manual activation of the approach and pressing of the FMS heading intercept line select key.
For the RNAV (GPS) Z 11L approach, selecting the DINGO transition will result in the aircraft leaving the STAR at DINGO intersection for automatic approach (gate) activation at CALLS intersection.
Keeping both procedures available may be the best decision.
Simply doing nothing will continue the aircraft on the STAR.
| To EDIT the Arrival
are various means available. |
When directed by ATC :-
You can fly DTO :
DTO function key,
And see on the NAV page
You can remove the "NO LINK "
Press the adjacent line select key which will bring up an overlay with DEL. Pressing the DEL line select key will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the NO LINK .
You can select-- flight plan forward-
Recall the flight plan - -
Highlight the number 23 by pressing L4, input the waypoint number 27 and press.
YOU thus will have guided the aircraft to leave the star DINGO for the transition DINGO in the approach.
|direct entry to DTO|
On many occasions ATC may give a clearance direct to a waypoint on the approach chart or some other point.
You press the DTO key and input AMAZE either
1) directly typing, in the highlighted blank space
2) from the list presented if available or
3) selecting the list function.
See DTO operations
You must then link into the flight plan
One way is to press the NX line select key.
note: photo not co-ordinated with text.
will allow for selection of the follow on way point from the
Once the waypoint is selected, the NAV page is now linked to the flightplan.
| HOLDING DURING THE APPROACH |
The clearance is direct to LIPTE for the course reversal; cleared approach.
Select DTO key and see -------
The crew must decide which LIPTE to go to. LIPTE* with the asterisk, which is the entry point for the holding pattern. Being that this is a hold to fix (HF) pattern,
Selection of the second LIPTE (LIPTE/H) will result in the FMS not entering the holding pattern.
Press 25 and ENTER
think "LIPKE +" or "LIPKE - Hold"
|197|| The FMS NAV page is
now linked to the
flightplan and will enter the holding pattern for the course reversal
and the approach transition. |
Once the aircraft has entered the holding pattern and if there is a requirement to continue holding more than one turn.
Press the MNVR R2 line select and
|198//341|| See |
an option to continue the hold is provided.
When pressed L4 - -----see
The holding pattern is converted to hold until manually terminated (HM).
This requires pilot action to exit the holding pattern.
it is time to exit the holding pattern and fly the approach, there
are 2 options|
| Option 1 |
and see --------
The PROCEED option will convert the holding pattern into a HF pattern and the aircraft will now exit holding upon crossing the holding waypoint.
| Option 2 |
At any point use the DTO function.
Remember the LEFT and RIGHT (turn) functions are operational. (R 1&2)
Insure both the desired waypoint and the turn direction and are first selected before pressing ENTER.
Note in illustrated case use first "CALLS"#28 vice #25 (see 310 a note below)
| PROCEDURE TURN|
The selection of the transition will bring the procedure turn definition into the flightplan.
It is a calculated non-track program using wind and groundspeed and calculates the lat/long of the two procedure turn waypoints. The FMS will navigate to them and calculate mileage for presentation on the primary flight display.
The 400 MFD display will draw the process.
NOTE: this is a procedure right turn (PR-TRN)- - non standard nomenclature
Although the procedure turn waypoints are presented on the FMS and map display, the flightplan will not display these waypoint.
| ARCS |
An arc leg (AF) is a procedural leg that cannot be created in the flightplan and must come from the database.
|205||The arrow indicates the direction of arc, in this case a right arc. The distance of 15.0 is the arc distance from the LMT VOR.|
|Vectors to an
Assumption ....in FMS nav mode
If vectors are given use CMD HDG input and ENTER.
90 in this case....
Select FR line (L1)
and see...... a blank FR Line....
Select waypoint from list presented and input appropriate number (25 in this case).
Press ENTER 2X and the following waypoints are automatically entered
and press return
note:unco-ordinated - photo needed
|207|| If heading is a
intercept, an INTERCEPT at R2 line select key will be presented. |
|208|| NOTE |
if and only if,
the TO window equals 'approach gate' the track is extended backwards as in the APPR mode.
| PVOR is another
of extending Approach Centerline |
The clearance is to fly the assigned heading and intercept the Teterboro VOR DME or GPS-A final approach course outside WANES intersection.
One way is to manually activate the approach. This will extend the inbound course
another is -- select MNVR (R3)
| and see--------|
Select PVOR (R2)
and see -------
The page will display the current "TO" waypoint from the flightplan, and subsequent waypoints will be displayed in a list.
The desired PVOR point may be chosen
1) from the list, by inserting the corresponding number,
2) manually by entered a waypoint/fixat the cursor, or
3) the L(ist) feature may be used.
| After the
waypoint is identified, the cursor will move to
TRACK field |
by using the R3 line select key (or ENTER twice) for the INBOUND field.
IF inbound radial is used -- the desired track will be calculated. Prefered method
Once the definition is made, the ACCEPT line select key will be available.
Pressing ACCEPT will change the current NAV leg to the PVOR and an intercept angle of up to 45 deg. towards the defined radial will be commanded----
If in LNAV and
If CND HDG was not first initiated when in the LNAV mode.
|214|| THE APPROACH
SEGMENT ||That part that takes the aircraft to the runway.|
| It starts at the
approach label / capture fix (*approach gate*)and are terminated by *
at which point the missed approach is initiated.
If other fixes are present in the database between the 'approach gate' and EOA they will be present
| *Approach gates*
will always be at least
2 miles prior to the FAF. If a suitable fix is not present in the data
base one will be created. |
If an *approach gate* fix is the last waypoint in the transition it will be listed twice " the sandwich" in the flightplan. do not delete one of these waypoints.
The approach segment should NOT be edited including*EOA*. This turns off all of the 'approach activation(s)' that occurs at the *approach gate*.
|217||ARM APPR Armed approach|
Available at 50 NM.
Auto at 30NM.
At 50nm from airport, with (anything but ILS) an approach in the flightplan, the FMS will present an ARM APPR (arm approach) line select key (R3) which will allow for manual arming.
Automatic approach arming occurs at 30nm from the airport.
|and see |
1) APPR ARMED
2) ARM APPR active (R3).
3) Sets terminal scaling (T) see at ( L4).. track +/-1nm.
4) It analyzes the NAV sensor requirements to fly the approach and alerts the pilot. Pressing the prompt tunes the VHF receiver (if ARCDU in FMS mode.)
5) If GPS is used for the approach, a GPS RAIM prediction will automatically be performed.
A failure of approach aid will void the approach guidance with no sig.warning!! i.e. no RAIM, Localizer fail, GNS based VOR not WGS 84 approved.
|219||ACT APPR Activate Approach |
When the Approach mode is active, angular CDI scaling is invoked. The CDI sensitivity is then Ī 2.0 degrees, approximating that of a normally sited localizer on a runway of about 9,000 feet in length.
Angular scaling is maintained to the point where full scale CDI deflection is equal to Ī 0.3 nm. The system maintains linear scaling at Ī 0.3 nm to the end-of-approach.
page 5-112 FMS manual
| MANUAL ACTIVATION as in|
ATC vectors to final
Can be selected when in APPR ARMED mode by selecting ACT APPR line key. (R3)
1) Additional NAV APPR Page 2/4 is available. NAV , 2, and 3 are renamed Nav 1.4, 3/4 , and 4/4 .
see tile 222 for details
2) <SCALE CHANGE> indicates approach scaling active.
XTK (T) becomes XTK (A) at (L4) indicates XTK (A) approach scaling -- track +/-1 reducing to +/- .3
3) CMD HDG automatically activated (reverse video) (R1)
4) FR waypoint as INBOUND (L1)
5) TO waypoint as the first waypoint past the 'approach gate' , All intervening waypoints from the present FR-TO leg to the first approach waypoint will be sequenced (out), and HSI guidance will be to that waypoint.
Desired track or inbound course for the approach, stated, presented and extended out 50 NM.
6) CNCL APPR is presented (R4)
7) CNCL HGD is presented (R5)
Crosstrack error (lateral deviation) - The HSI course deviation display will be similar to a localizer in that full scale (two dot) deflection indicates a course error of 2° to 0.3 nm.
Lateral valid (NAV flag out of view)
GlideSLOPE (vertical deviation) HSI VPATH presented
Vertical valid (Glideslope G/S flag out of view)
Note: Glideslope will become active -when within +/- 20 deg. of inbound final approach course. (revised from 12.5 nm. lateral see updates file p 321)
Note there is no match up between these screens and those above.
Regardless of actual position, the waypoints will not sequence and the TO waypoint will remain the same until the aircraft is within 5nm of the inbound course and the intercept track is less that 90 deg.° of the inbound course. Once these conditions are satisfied and the aircraft passes theTO waypoint, an automatic leg change to the next approach waypoint will occur.
see updates to fms
When the correct intercept angle is established|
Note: "correct intercept angle: as per amendment from Universal undated is now <90 deg for an approach and 135 deg. enroute vice the original statement of 115 deg in their original document.
the INTERCEPT LSK on NAV Page (R2) will be presented and must be pressed to allow interception of the final approach course.
Note: Intercepts will not take place if not in LNAV. It is therefore suggested that all vectored FMS approaches (except ILS approaches) be conducted using CMD HDG mode.
Note: If the FMS flies into a " vector" segment CND HDG is NOT automatically entered. see below
9) Press Intercept Selection will place INTECEPT at top of nav list as in this unrelated photo.
|ARRIVALS WITH A VECTOR LEG
Flying arrivals with a vector to manual(VM) terminated leg may require a variation to normal procedures. As in the Down Wind Terminators (DWT )
It will appear as a VECTOR leg as shown
Fly the leg as depicted until crossing the leg terminator; in this case, DUTIR.
|Upon sequencing to the VM leg…
see PROC HDG in blue as shown
do not understand why this does not go directly to command hdg??
|Select command heading (CMD HDG) and press Enter .
As soon as Enter is pressed, the FMS will automatically sequence to the CF leg. (center line extended)
Now, per ATC vectors, use FMS CMD HDG to turn the aircraft to an intercept heading for the CF leg.
follow as in tile 221 and then see as in tile 222
|10) When the
inbound course is
captured, the heading mode will cancel. |
11) approach will be named on the top line in blue replacing APPR ACTIVE
Nav 1/4 becomes Nav Appr 1/4
NAV APPR 2/4 replaces the ANP / RNP with XWIND crosswind component and VSR ( vertical speed required).
Do not understand why anp and rnp where not simply replaced and all else left alone poor
Select VNAV set MA altitude
generally monitor VDEV when <1000 call gear , flap , and checklist
flap 35 can be selected on vertical path "off the peg"...
note these pages are a composite. not real sequence.
| AUTO Approach activation //gate passage|
1)APPR ARMED is active as shown----------
2) The angle of intercept or track error is within 80 deg. of the final approach course.
Then 15 sec. prior to the*approach gate* gate, approach goes active and all items of Manual Activation occur along with the following:
1) Altitude selector can dialed above current altitude without defaulting a V path to Pitch
2) If VNAV is armed ALT will auto cancel upon intercept of Glide path from above and Glide path will commence tracking.
3) A MISSD APPR line select key will be presented.
4) GA button becomes active. Terminates current approach, vertical nav. info and sequences EOA .(5-124)if config)??
Note: At any time, if a DTO is performed to a waypoint in the approach, and the approach was previously armed, then the approach will automatically activate. (5 -111)
Note If on missed approach,(and return try again) the FMS will not automatically rearm until placed on a navigational path to a point prior to the approach gate.
In the event of no designated capture fix the FMS will go approach active 2nm prior to the FAF if a crosstrack of less than 0.3nm.
| and see------|
we see this 3 and 4 pages as not being correctly named
Nav 4/4 is identical in function to Nav 3/3 page
There is no Nav to Nav transfer in software 802.
These are advisory approachs (as per FMS configuration) ARM and ACT APPR lines are not presented.
Guidance to the final track on FMS requires a FROM TO input at the approach gate or PVOR as above see tile 350
Crews are expected to transfer navigation to Heading mode and ILS as appropriate.
EOA = GAP
In 802.2 software, the *EOA*or End of Approach gap, will not automatically sequence to the first missed approach leg. *EOA* must be edited out in order that FMS LNAV is set for a missed approach.
As with all missed approaches, if the pilot uses the aircraft go-around system, the aircraft pitch up, wings level command will come from the aircraft flight director. The FMS will not provide any vertical guidance. To reconnect the flight director to the FMS, flight director NAV mode must be selected.
| Advisory approaches|
ILS approaches are identified at time of FMS configuration as advisory
Such approaches turn off the NAV sensor during the final approach segment, They can be entered into the flightplan, but the approach segment cannot be flown through the FMS. They can, however, be used for the transition and missed approach portion of the approach. Procedural turns, arcs, holding patterns in lieu of procedural turns, vectors, and straight in approaches to the FAF can be flown. Sometime before the FAF, select the VHF radio as the source to fly the approach segment.
Where to leave the FMS and select VHF navigation is technique.
Such approachs will not present the ARM, ACCT APPR, CNCL APPR, MISSD APPR options that are required of an enabled approach.
| Localizer AND
Backcourse Approaches |
Both are flown with the FMS providing navigational control throughout the entire approach. The FMS must have localizer reception and be able to track it.. The FMS will use GPS to identify the Lat/Long of the FAF and MAP. These approaches will be followed on the arrival page with a "G"
IF approach is not WGS-84 compliant guidance will fail at the FAF.
|Following the arming of the approach, the FMS will require that the ILS frequency be tuned and will prompt with the TUNE APPR line select key a R3|
this is not accomplished, further prompting by FMS
message will occur. |
Failure to tune the Nav. radio to the required frequency will result in the FMS guidance failure .
Otherwise PFD will annunciate - - 'localizer tracking in effect'.
FMS will present both lateral and vertical guidance for the backcourse
approach the same as a localizer approach.|
The difference between a conventional back course approach and an FMS flown back course approach is the course arrow will point to the landing runway of the back course approach and the pressing of the aircraft flight director BC switch for most aircraft is not required.
If the backcourse approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope. Check the approach plan on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability.
not avail on 300
| RNAV Approaches |
The pilot will only receive notice by message if the predictive RAIM fails to meet approach criteria. If RAIM will not be available, a CDU message NO RAIM AT FAF or NO RAIM AT MA is displayed. This meets the RAIM prediction criteria for most countries IAW TSO 129; a few countries may have requirements for a manual RAIM prediction.
The real time integrity and accuracy of GPS will be the only criteria that will prevent a GPS approach from being flown.
Thus guidance failure, an apporach flag, and a missed apporach requirement.
term RNAV (GPS) is too along for database use. ATC use the
term RNAV .|
RNAV (RNP), LPV approaches are not approved at this time LNAV/VNAV and LNAV varies with jurisdiction.???
DeHavilland Dash 8 (Q-400): NAV for lateral and VNAV for vertical. All non-precision
approaches are certified including BC and LOC.
RNAV (GPS) approach format is used internationally Some charts use
(GPS) and some use (GNSS), but the formats are similar. |
| FLYING VOR AND
VOR/DME APPROACHES |
VOR and VOR DME approaches may be flown with the use of GNSS/GPS if designated GPS in the title. Reception of the VOR is not required. FMS will use both and if one fails, the FMS will continue on the remaining NAV sensors. A message stating loss, but no flagging of the navigation display, will occur.
In VOR and DME approaches the FMS may deselect GPS during the approach arming process and must have VOR and DME to continue the procedure. FMS distance may substitute for DME.
If the approach name is followed by a G, the approach will retain the GPS for navigation even if it is not an overlay approach.
The FMS uses a maximum of three letters to identify an approach type. Both VOR and VOR DME approaches are identified by the letters VOR.
If the approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope.
Check the APPR PLAN (approach plan) on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability. (available when arrival entered)
|234|| FLYING THE NDB
The FMS does not use the NDB as a NAV sensor,. If (G) in the title the NDB is not required. If not the NDB must be used,
but the FMS may be use to supplement NDB navigation.
If the NDB approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope.
Check the approach plan on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability
|235||VERTICAL APPROACH NAVIGATION|
| The FMS uses barometric altimeter inputs through the air data computer to monitor the altitude of the aircraft
relative to the defined "glideslope"from the database. The pseudo
glideslope is computed by first starting at the runway
threshold crossing altitude, then computing an angle that will pass
through the final approach fix database altitude, and projected
outward. For any approach with the final approach course in line
with the runway, an attempt will be made to code a vertical path.|
The glideslope is calculated up to an angle that will clear any stepdown fix.
The minimum descent altitude or decision altitude are not in the FMS database. The FMS glideslope will terminate at the missed approach point and the aircraft glideslope indicator will bias out of view.
A circling only approach with only circling minimums listed and the inbound course is not inline with the runway, vertical navigation may not be provided.
If the missed approach point is beyond the runway threshold, vertical navigation may not be provided.
If the pseudo glideslope is too steep vertical navigation may not be provided.
If the pseudo glideslope is too shallow vertical navigation may not be provided, or may be raised to 3 deg.
Enroute to Approach VNAV transition
It is possible for the FMS enroute VNAV to interface directly into the FMS approach pseudo glideslope.
Since the termination point of the enroute VNAV through the approach transition is at the start of the approach glideslope, (the approach gate fix), the FMS should drop the enroute VNAV and immediately activate the approach VNAV.
For the transition to be successful the aircraft must be within plus or minus 100 feet of the pseudo glideslope altitude.
NOTE: It is possible to manually enter an enroute VNAV transition waypoint altitude that is below the FAF altitude. The VNAV leg following this lower altitude will be calculated by the FMS as a climb, which the FMS cannot do.
The result will be a cancellation of the VNAV tracking and a default to PITCH.
A failure to monitor this transition can result in CFIT.
|236a||The above information is
as provided by Universal reduced and corrected. It is not complete and
provides a number of misunderstandings which we will attempt to clarify.|
There are vertical path and (pseudo) glidepath approches
1) *EOA* approach fix removal will result in an FMS failure to transition to approach scaling.
2) Approach altitudes within the "gate" can be amended without loss of the transition to terminal scaling.
3) Altitudes can not be input that are below Min. Approach altitudes.
i.e. an altitude of less than 1700' will not be accepted at MIDPA on the Downsview approach.
If Temp. Comp. is selected no altitude below the 1700'-temperature compensated altitude, will be accepted.
DAROG similarly will have a Min. altitude that is acceptable to the FMS.
|236b||Many non precision
approaches will project a pseudo glideslope at 3 Degrees when this is
depicted on the approved approach plate (database). .......as is shown.|
This will result in a projected altitude (X ) of 3961 feet asl at DAROG .
The projected altitude at ADREB will depend on the
altitude at DAROG and the TGT FPA angle set into the VNAV menu page.
|236c||As ATC has requested us
to cross DAROG at 3000' , we have input this, and the result is a
revised projected X altitude of 5589' at ADREB.|
|236d||Inputting a revised
altitude at the "arrival" DAROG will automatically amend the
altitude at the "approach" DAROG inside the approach gate
(*RNV 15 *)in order to preclude...|
"a cancellation of the VNAV tracking and the default to PITCH."
3 degree "pseudo glide path" has now been amended downward and no
longer exists. The FMS handles the vertical aspect as it
normally would. The pilot flies a vertical path approach.|
IF the aircraft is in VNAV it will remain in VNAV and descend in accordance with the altitudes in the FPL.
Generally in accordance with ATC requests the MIDPA altitude of 2000" would have been entered, but any altitide could be used down to 1700'.
This will result in a varying decent profile and vs speed adjustment requirements at each fix.
The descent angle will be less than 3 deg. and the VASI will be red on red at minimums.
Once the aircraft has passed the approach gate (*RNV 15 * )
the "alt capture" programming is amended .
A missed approach altitude above the aircraft current altitude may be selected without defaulting the VNAV to PITCH.
|236f||There are 2 methods of activating and flying the constant rate, pseudo glidepath approach.|
1) Activating the approach outside the "gate".
This projects the approach track and the glidepath beyond the gate fix.
2) Flying through the gate fix(* xx *) at an altitude below the gate fix altitude . This automatically activates the approach and the glidepath.
In each case VNAV must be selected for descent prior to glidepath intercept.
With the aircraft is in ALT mode , glidepath capture and aircraft handling will be similar to that seen on an ILS. ALT is removed, VNAV moves up to the active position and crews can select the missed approach alt. Once the aircraft has passed the approach gate.
|236 g||There are some 5 reasons why this VNAV fails and or defaults to Pitch.|
1) The aircraft is in an FMS generated vertical mode when passing through the "approach gate" and the deviation to the new vertical path exceeds 100'.
2) The aircraft is in a vertical mode at the "gate" and VNAV is armed. ??
3) The aircraft is in enroute VNAV with a high descent rate (<1500 fpm), transitions to approach VNAV and is unable to adjust with less that a 100" deviation.
4) The crew failed to enter DAROG prior to the gate fix. This programing ensures that the FMS program sequence sees a 3000' requirement before the 3961' delivered at the gate passage . The FMS understands the crew intent, the 3961 is therefore sandwiched and masked. ???
Note: The aircraft should be in ALT mode at the "gate" in order to avoid any of the above.
5) The Crew selects a MA altitude above current altitude prior to the approach gate while in an FMS vertical mode.
|In the event of pitch mode.|
PNF must be alert and monitor for this mode and be prepared to reset.
Dependant on co. SOP, and situation this may involve.
1) VTO enter, enter and Vnav select
2) press Alt. and reselect VNAV or go to MA
3) continue to MDA with no VNAV.
Caution undetected pitch mode can result in CFIT
When approach active and sequenced past the FAF, the FMS will present a MISSD APPR line select key at (R3). ------
|238|| see ----EOA removed(L3) and ARM APPR(R3) is now available|
The FMS will continue to navigate the aircraft to the MAP and, when crossing that point, the FMS will enter the missed approach segment.
Note: RW11L * is a fly-over waypoint.
The ∗EOA∗ acts as a GAP and prevents sequencing. the FMS will now connect to the flightplan and sequence to the first navigation leg of the missed approach segment.
|239||The ∗EOA∗ will not be removed
from the flightplan, only from the NAV page. This will insure the
integrity of the approach is maintained to ensure the approach is
available if needed again.|
The missed approach line select key can be remotely pressed through the go-around system of the aircraft flight director.
This function only becomes available upon crossing the FAF, on an active FMS approach,
MISSD APPR terminates vertical guidance and returns the FMS to terminal T (L5) phase of flight .
The aircraft pitch up, wings level command will come from the aircraft flight director.
Flight director NAV mode must be reselected.
|Upon touchdown, the LANDING summary page will be displayed. |
|241||Press the Next key and see---|
From the LANDING page only the MSG and TUNE pages can be accessed.
Once any another function is selected, the LANDING pages are no longer available.
IRS?? and page
| SYSTEM SHUTDOWN
Press the ON/OFF/DIM key. In the overlay, press the OFF line select key, the overlay then presents CONFIRM OFF or SELECT STBY ?? then select the CONFIRM OFF line select key. The FMS will shut down. It is strongly recommended that the FMS be shut down by the normal shutdown method before removing power from the FMS by turning off the avionics master switch or the aircraft's batteries. Failing to do so will place the FMS in a power failure mode. See ---
|243|| FMS STAND-BY MODE |
Press the ON/OFF/ key and line select key 5R will present OFF/STBY. Select this line select key and CONFIRM STBY will appear adjacent to line select key [5R].
Using the ON/OFF? will reactivate the FMS and, following the power on self test a STANDBY RESUME page will appear.
When activated, the FMS will hold flight plan and fuel inputs for a set time (of 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours see configuration module set-up).
The FMS will power down, but the flightplan and fuel inputs are saved.
Confirm the flightplan waypoints and confirm the fuel on board
FAILURE PROCEDURES |
After electrical power is restored following a power failure see--
POWER FAILURE FROM 7 sec. to 7 min. - - -
if < 7 sec. Not seen
if > 7 min requires full initialization.
1. Press the N key to access NAV page 2. Check the FMS position and navigation sensors.
2. If the position is reasonable and GPS is in NAV, check NAV page 1 or 2 to verify correct NAV leg.
3. Monitor GPS position until aircraft is back on track and the WIND on the NAV page stabilizes.
NOTE: Loss of power will cause the FMS screen to go full bright when power is restored.
|DATA FUNCTION PAGES
DATA 1/4 is the database menu page. And is presented when the DATA function key is first pressed. link to data pages review
It allows access to the navigation database, pilot database, company database, and disk or DTU operations.
UNILINK, line select key will be displayed at R3 on aircraft that have the options
The MAINT line select key is a maintenance function and allows crews to interrogate the contents of the navigation database, press the NAV DATA line select key.
Other options include PERF, AFIS, MFD DISP, CABIN DISP and are not presented on the 400 at this time.
|200|| OCEANIC WAYPOINTS |
The database contains latitude and longitude identified waypoints for many areas of the
world. I.e. North Atlantic Track s(NAT)
The flightplan will be displayed in a seven character alphanumeric format as shown.
can be entered in the flightplan in this format or the ARINC format. |
press the Enter key
The lat/long will be displayed in degrees, minutes, and hundredths of
|203|| PILOT DEFINED
A pilot defined waypoint can be created using one of three techniques.
By lat/ long. I.e. 54.00.00'N 027:00.00'W is entered using either:
A) the ARINC naming convention, as 5427N,
B) enter the waypoint using the format 54N027W.
Enter by first pressing the line select key at the desired location and entering as appropriate and press Enter.
This creates the name of the waypoint
Note Pilot waypoints can be created almost anywhere in a flight plan and are automatically stored in pilot data. They can not be amended if contained in any stored flight plan.
Enter the coordinates in degrees, minutes, and
100ths of minutes (or, with a MENU selection, 1000th of minutes) and press Enter .
cursor moves from latitude to longitude. Input the coordinates and
press Enter |
the coordinates are acceptable, press |
ACCEPT WPT line select key.
The new waypoint entered into the flightplan. The is different to identify it as a pilot created waypoint.
Once the pilot waypoint is created, it can be used and entered using either the ARINC format or the seven character format.
the naming convention does not provide a name orf the waypoint or the
name selected is already in use, create a name up to five characters
and place it in the flightplan.|
|210||As in ----|
| 2) |
Define a pilot waypoint using a radial and distance from a known fix. The known fix
can be either a NAV waypoint or a previously
created pilot waypoint.
i.e The waypoint LKV50 is defined as 50 nautical miles on the 150-degree radial from the LKV
Since the waypoint name of LKV50 does not exist in the database, when LKV50 is entered into the flightplan, the DEFINE WPT page is presented. With the cursor as shown-----
at the REF WPT line select key, press Enter,
Verify( and see that Page), and
the lat and long of LKV are entered at L2 |
The cursor will move to allow entry of the radial. Input 1,5,0,0 and enter
NOTE: The radial and DME entries are four character fields requiring the inclusion of a tenth of a degree or mile respectively.
the Enter key will move the cursor to the distance line. |
Input 5,0,0, and press the Enter Key
the FMS will calculate a Lat/Long. At R2
ACCEPT WPT L5 will place the waypoint into the flightplan.
using crossing radials of two fixes. (Seldom used in a GPS based FMS operation.)
The example uses V-222 from the SFL VOR, and the V-16 into PEQ.
Inputing 22216 will again present the DEFINE WPT page.
Enter SFL and the radial.
with the Enter key |
the line select key, L4 move the cursor
to WPT; enter the second fix.
Entering the radial and pressing E will cause the
FMS to calculate the lat/long of the crossing point.
NOTE If the two radials do not intersect, the last waypoint radial will flash.
If the two reference waypoints are more than 200nm from each other, a waypoint will not be calculated.
the new waypoint will place it in the |
Flightplan and in the database. The turn point is now identified and the follow on waypoint can be entered into the flightplan.
To create a route using landmarks,
First map out the route of flight and identify the landmarks.
Through visual pilotage, navigate the aircraft towards the waypoint. Enter the name of the waypoint in the flightplan and press Enter .
Press the lat/long line select key.
Notice that GNSS POS and FMS1 POS lines become bold and selectable.
the aircraft crosses the landmark for RVRXG, press either GNSS POS or
FMS1 POS and the lat/long is entered into the field.|
Pressing GNSS POS will use the pure GNSS position. Pressing FMS POS will use the FMS best computed position.
WPT will enter it into the flightplan. |
By storing (press MENU and )this flightplan as a pilot route, this flightplan may be flown exactly as it was created.
|// 112/2009||OCEANIC COURSE REVERSAL|
an emergency requires the aircraft to return to the coast-out point,
the FMS procedure to accomplish this is as follows.|
The first step is to turn the aircraft 90° to the current course. There may be specific turn directions required, observe regulatory requirements.
|Under FPL MENU 2/2 use the INVERT FPL tool to|
reverse the flightplan.
This will require a double push on the line select
|The flightplan will now show the return routing.|
NAV page will still retain the original NAV leg.
A manual leg change will be needed to provide the
new NAV leg. Push the “FR” line select key and---
enter the correct “FR” waypoint.
Complete the NAV leg by entering the correct “TO”
waypoint and press the Enter key.
|Selected cross track operations SXTK|
|Although this represents the
correct NAV leg, is prudent /required until clearance is received
to, offset the return course.|
to do so
Highlight crosstrack SXTK (L4) and enter the appropriate offset distance.
|Use the CMD HDG function and INTERCEPT to have|
the FMS intercept and navigate the new NAV leg.
The FMS will follow the SXTK offset until the next waypoint in system 802.x
|to create a route|