This is the uns rewrite  to become D8 400 specific  and presenting the need to know information. For the nice to know  read the USN Operators Training manual. or The FMS Operators manual ( the one carried on the aircraft).
It is an ongoing process at this time -as of Dec 09  - -we will improve the graphics  with time.

It is presented in a flight sequence its parts, turn it on, initialize and set up, flight planning,  fuel planning, -
Flight plan analysis and editing   ,  the overlay window, Del  Info, Tune Ovfly, Offst see also  links and gaps
DTO ---direct to operations and divert to airports
Nav Pages1-2 , explanations, Flightplan Unlinked Links and Gaps, . Manual leg change operations.
HDG /  CMD HDG .Command heading mode  intercept angle
HOLDING  DEFN  -setting up a hold,  HOLDING the header, meaning
 HDG /  CMD HDG  again, PVOR pseudo vor operation,     SXTK  Selected Crosstrack Operations ( parallel navigation)  ,  
Nav Menue pages
Nav Display Crosstrack scaling (on PFD)....Map Display remove missed approach segment..
LAT Long crossing, ..FIX . for abeam  radial and distance  crossing... ...
NAV 3/3 page same as NAV 4/4 page
Hold pos,  Update sens a useless function, and Sensors
PERF 1 Cruise info and ETP/ PNR equal time and point of no return
VNAV operations     Enroute  vnav OFFST,  cancel vnav     VTO vertical to ops
APPR PLAN approach planning information available
TEMP COMP temperature compensation
Approach segment, holds in approach,
the approach segment and its options arming, activation and vectors and PROC HDG arrivals with a vector leg (DWT)
ILS approaches, BC approaches etc.
Vnav approaches
Missed approaches
Shutdown and stby mode  and   Power failure
DATA function pages - a visual listing of what you see in sequence order. incomplete at this time

WAYPOINTS: overfly waypoints  waypoint naming, oceanic waypointsvisual waypointswaypoint and turn types
Equal time points point of no Return
Oceanic course reversal.....and related Selected cross track operations SXTK

Glossary    and  Nav. definitions  the terminology used and acronyms.
Error Messages
FMS displayed messages and Annunciators  a listing of what can be seen with explanations.
VNAV ERROR MESSAGES-on the VNAV page with explanations.

tile #/
ref to
 uns mauual

photo ref
// 5
D8400 installed UNS 1 E FMS from 
3260 East Universal Way
Tucson, AZ 85706 
(520) 573-7627 (800) 595-5906
based on 
Report No. 3040sv80X/90X
Dated October 1, 2007

802.2 software the unit consists of
The function keys. 103
The line select keys.  005

The Alpha keys(keyboard) and the numeric keys.

the unit
the numeric keys
Note: at the end of this document we provide a large scale illustration of "the unit"  - we suggest you photcopy it to keep beside you for reference as you review this document.
Database loading via ZIP disk found on the 400 on the shelf  beside/behind the copilots seat.

Radio rack

Navigation System Management 
Navigation Database
Pilot Data Storage 
Flight Planning
Fuel Management Monitoring 
Frequency Management
Lateral Guidance and Steering 
AFIS Advisory System Interface
Vertical Guidance
Optional  UniLink Interface
Universal Avionics Flight Management Systems are centralized control and master computer systems, designed to consolidate and optimize the acquisition, processing, interpretation, and display of certain aircraft navigational data.
FMS systems is installed with multi-sensor systems.
The long range navigation sensors  Inertial, GNSS, GPS. can also be accommodated. When a DME interface is included, the DME input is considered a short range sensor and is from a multichannel DME.with  up to 15 are continuously tracked. VOR input is provided, VOR/VOR-DME /RNAV (VOR DME) approaches when GPS integrity does not meet integrity requirements. VOR can be used enroute as a last resort sensor.
The FMS takes advantage of a particular sensor's good properties while minimizing its liabilities. The system processes multiple sensor information in order to derive one Best Computed Position (BCP).

The certainty of the FMS's Position to a 95% probability is expressed as Actual Navigation Performance (ANP) in hundredths of a nautical mile (0.07).
The FMS allows for Required Navigation Performance RNP to be manually set by the pilot when the default values are not what is required.

The stored navigation database provides the capacity for all conceived uses along with up to 200 pilot created flight plans.The off line features allows for use of a PC for planning and subsequent upload.
It has; 
1)Fuel management
2) Frequency management
3) Lateral and vertical guidance Internal self monitor  sensor watchdog including alarms for
4) Options for Unilink and AFIS

It operates with the Global Navigation Satellite System using orbiting satellites to plot latitude and longitude positions on the earth. Two countries currently support GNSS programs, the United States of America and Japan (GPS)and Russia with the (GLONASS). Future GNSS programs are planned by Europe (Galileo),and China's(Beidou). for more detail see UNS manual.


Press   ON/OFF DIM key to power up. The system will perform a Self Test .

PASS, or FAIL indicates operating status. Some failures will allow limited operation.

A power off /on , (reboot) may clear some problems.

After successful completion of self-tests, the INIT (initialization) page will be displayed. 
The INITIAL POS displays the Latitude and Longitude (L2) and Line (L1) indicates the source for the FMS position <GNSS> or <GPS>. (most accurate.If not displayed, the displayed coordinates are those of the FMS when it last stopped navigating.

If not reasonable  -- -Pressing 1L line select key, will highlight the space placed next to ID for crew input.

Direct entry can be made with the use of the alpha keys (IE CYZD airport ) or by using the List function key to select a position.

The cursor will pre-fill the list number of the waypoint closest to the initial position coordinates. Distances from initial position are shown. If an airport ALIGN PT has created it will appear under the APT/PLT listing.

Input the correct number in the cursor field and press ENTER.

When the GNSS or GPS are in NAV mode, UTC and date are automatically updated, (R2 and R3) allowing the GPS to correct the date and time is strongly recommended.

Verify parameters and then ACCEPT by pressing line select key L5  beside highlighted window.  When pressed, the ACCEPT line select key will disappear as will <GNSS> or <GPS> if used for initial coordinates.

for a dual installarion

By pressing the ON/ OFF DIM key again , an overlay will be brought up that allows for controlling the brightness of the screen.

Press and hold the BRIGHT (R1) or DIM (R2 )line select key to set the preferred screen brightness.
To correct any parallax issues, press the DISPLAY line select key and see---

This allows for UP and DOWN line adjustment.

Press the CANCEL line select key to remove the current overlay or the ON/OFF DIM  key to close the entire overlay.
Sometimes on initialize the accuracy of the initial position could produce a large circle of position. outside Horizontal Integrity Limits (HIL) of the GNSS or GPS. This will present a position uncertain message (ANP exceeds RNP) .  The FMS will continue to consolidate the NAV sensor input and eventually the position uncertain message will disappear.  While the position uncertain message is displayed, the FMS will continue to navigate to the best tolerances possible.


Pressing the FPL function key see-----

The first flightplan waypoint will pre-fill with the nearest airport The cursor will be ready to accept the next point. The COPY PLT RTE and COPY CO RTE (if applicable) line select key will be displayed.
The flightplan may be constructed, by directly imputing waypoints into the cursor; 
A route from the pilot or company database may be copied into the flightplan by pressing the appropriate line select key. (R3 or R4)

note. UNILINK RTE  is an option generally not seen.
Press  COPY PLT RTE and see----

PLT RTES - -1/X  page.

The routes directory of all existing stored routes. Routes are in geographical/alphabetical order.  The PREV or NEXT keys may be used to move to the page with the desired route.
At the cursor,  enter the list number of the desired route and press ENTER .
In this case Route #1 was entered and see----

The route was copied and the cursor returns after the last waypoint to enter additional points if desired.
If KTUS is the destination then--- 

Press the keyboard MENU  key .

It is indicated as available by the M in the top right corner of the screen.
And see-----

The STORE FPL line select key ( R1) will make and electronic copy of the existing flightplan and store it as a pilot route database and ---.
The cursor is highlighted and allows the crew to name the route file in the PLT PTE database.
A (+) key will place a period that can be used for a space.
Up to 8 alphanumeric characters is available. If no name is entered, the FMS default name is the first waypoint plus the last waypoint.

and press ENTER

Located at the last page of the PLT RTE find----(NEXT NEXT if reqd) see-----

This page can be used to estimate time enroute and fuel required. It can be used to determine takeoff and arrival times for both UTC and local.

Depending on how you have accessed this flightplan file you will see
1) PLT RTE SUMMARY (database)or
2) FPL SUMMARY (active flight plan) 

The FPL SUMMARY page is available only on the ground because real time information is available in flight. 
The PLT RTE SUMMARY page is always available to the associated pilot route.

On the FPL SUMMARY page TAS is used (L4) and, as a result, time in route can be adjusted for wind.

By entering GS/TAS, FF, and RESERVES along with the ETD UTC the arrival time can be calculated in UTC.
By entering the local differentialfrom UTC, local arrival can be determined. 
To access, press LCL line select key L2 or R2 as appropriate, input the required number followed by the ENTER key. 
Entering a new time in either ETD or ETA, associated times will be adjusted.

The FPL/ PLT RTE SUMMARY page will adjust the time enroute
A CO RTE SUMMARY page is also associated with each company route.

Press the MENU  function key and see----

To add a SID  to the flight plan or route Press DEPART (L4)
From Menu Press  COMPRESSED and see----

The route you selected. 

The COMPRESSED option will take the flightplan or pilot route and compress the waypoint list for quick review of the route of flight. No editing can be done on this page.  

Altitude information is provided.

From FPL FPLMenu Press CLEARANCE and see-----

The flightplan in a format that resembles an ATC clearance.

How to Return??

// 66
From FPL Menu press PPOS TO WPT and see-------

The flightplan waypoints with the distance from the aircraft's present position and the time  IF the speed was entered on the SUMMARY page.

In flight, time is calculated using the current aircraft ground speed,


flightplan forecast winds are entered,  -

 TIME will be so adjusted.

From FPL Menu press DEPART and see(for example),-----

By pressing the RUNWAY  (R2)line select key, the selection can be made.  The FMS then prompts for the selections available for SID etc. and these are all placed in the flight plan.

If there is a runway change ( to 16R) selecting the new runway can be selected.
Input 2  (for 16R) and press ENTER.

All the old information is replaced in the flightplan.

FPL (R5) returns to the Flight plan page.

For  more on
use links.

 Depart and Arrive are explained in sequence
DELETE FPL removes current flight plan only and is the same as 99 ENTER.
98 ENTER deletes all following when entered in a flightplan.
To delete a flight plan in the database the operator must enter PLT RTE / menue

go NEXT function key and see------

Press REF ALT line select (L1)

And see (for example) ------

TAWS and VNAV altitudes and database altitude constraints.
From FPL MENUE 2/2 press WPT TO DEST (L2) and see-----

Waypoint to destination is distance from a listed waypoint to the flightplan destination.

Time enroute for FPL on the ground or pilot route is a function of the speed entered on the SUMMARY page. 
In flight, for the flightplan, time is calculated using the current aircraft ground speed or
if flightplan forecast winds are entered, TIME will be so adjusted .


From FPL MENUE 2/2 press WPT DEFN (L3)  and see (for example)-----

Shows  how the waypoint are defined.

NOTE:  A floating waypoint are those that are not terminated at a latitude/longitude position or fix, but by a set of conditions such as a course to altitude or heading to intercept.

NOTE: When a leg terminates with an altitude, that altitude must be met before the FMS will sequence to the next leg.

check on this
From FPL MENUE 2/2 press FPL WIND (L4)   and see (for example)------

Forecasted winds can be entered into the flightplan through this page.

Pressing the line select key on the right side adjacent to the waypoint allows for a manual entry of wind direction (true heading) and velocity.

A manual wind entry need not be input at every waypoint. The FMS will interpolate winds between manual entries.

During flight the FMS will use the current wind for time calculations to the next manual wind entry waypoint and forecast winds from that point on.

Entries on this page will increase the accuracy of the FPL Summary Page

Selection of the INVERT FPL option will result in the flightplan route of flight being reversed. The FMS will present a new flightplan to the original departure point.

TEMP COMP will be covered in the approach  section.
this is the only means of deleting routes (L4)

Both the DELETE RTE or DELETE FPL selections will delete the selected pilot route or the current flightplan.

A double push of the line select key is required.

Selection of PLT RTES returns to the PLT RTE catalog page.
Creating waypoints (in a flightplan)

The random waypoint is the LAS 220 radial at 40nm.  Any unused name can be assigned.In this case  LAS40 is used and entered into the cursor.

If the name LAS40 is already in use, modify it slightly to a waypoint name that is not in use.
Press the Enter key and see----

Note: The REF WPT (1L) is highlighted.

Since the random or pilot created waypoint is defined relative to LAS, LAS is entered into the REF WPT cursor field.
Select (L3) to highlight---

Input  220.0  and enter-----
The Enter key will move the cursor from RADIAL to DIST.

Input 40.0 (nm)  and Enter  to define the new waypoint.

The Lat and Long of the position will be calculated at line position (R2) and (R3)
Accept WPT )L5) will then be presented and highlighted..

Pressing the ACCEPT WPT line select key will move to a page that prompts for the next waypoint.

For more on pilot defined waypoints see the appendix section
FUEL Planning

Fuel initialization should be accomplished before takeoff, but can amended anytime during the flight.
Pressing the FUEL function key will access the first FUEL page.

The basic weight or basic operating weight (BOW) displayed here is stored in the FMS configuration module programmed at time of installation.

If needed, the weight may be adjusted by using the line select key to place the cursor here.

Enter will move the cursor to the next line.
Entries made in the PAX field will be calculated at the weight shown. (200).

If the weight shown needs correction press the MENU function
And see-----

The 5R line select key will place the cursor to allow the crew to set the 'AVG PAX WT'.

i.e 180
When the number of PAX is entered, the FMS computes the total passenger weight. (L2)

NOTE: The fuel initialization page will not suffice as a replacement for required weight and balance computations for certificate holders. But it sure helps!!!

The PAX total weight field then is active and will allow for direct entry, if necessary,  and Enter.
The Cursor moves to the CARGO posn---
Enter as appropriate or 0.

NOTE: Fuel initialization requires that the PAX and CARGO field have values to calculate ZFW.
The FMS computes the zero fuel weight (ZFW) and the cursor  moves to the FUEL ON BOARD field.

NOTE: If desired, the ZFW field can be entered directly by pressing the adjacent line select key. (L4)

An entry directly in the ZFW field will remove the PAX and CARGO entries.
There are two entry methods for entering FUEL ONBOARD. 
1)  a direct fuel entry into the FUEL ONBOARD field.


Pressing the FUEL ONBOARD line select will present the FUEL ONBOARD page
And see-------

When the TANK 1 quantity is entered, the cursor moves to TANK 2.
Line select keys 2L and 4L will move the cursor up or down if needed.
By pressing the Enter key on a blank tank cursor field the TOTAL fuel is computed.

Pressing the RTN line select key will cause a return to the FUEL page 1/5.

CAUTION: fuel quantity readings on the FMS are based the quantity inputs by the pilot, minus the fuel flow inputs from the aircraft.
There is no connection between FMS quantity readings and the aircraft's fuel quantity

Entry of the ALTERNATE, HOLD, and EXTRA  fields will result in the FMS calculating the aircraft TOTAL RESRVS. A number entered into each field is required to complete the calculation.

An entry directly into the TOTAL RESRVS field can be made by pressing the R4 line select key.

NOTE: If the Fuel key is pressed after fuel data has been initialized, the first page displayed will be FUEL page  2/5 not 1/5 as shown.

Pressing the MENU key for the FUEL OPTIONS page and see-------

The FMS conversion calculator.
Conversions are made automatically by pressing any line select key on the left and entering a number followed by pressing Enter . 
All lines are then filled.
It uses the standard weight of Jet A fuel @ 6.7 pounds per gallon.

The FUEL ENTRY  line select R3 will toggle between  BY TOTAL or BY TANK methods. And activates the FUEL ONBOARD  page if desired.

When in flight the FUEL function key will default to page 2/5.

Flightplan information is displayed.

The L3 key enables entry of the UTC offset for the calculation of destination ETA local.

In this case  -7

Fancy stuff aside

Line select key L2 allows input to the "TO" field to calculate a "what if" scenario.
Manually enter the alternate ICAO identifier or use the LIST function and ENTER. An (A) will indicate alternate airport. Alternate calculations are based on current aircraft fuel consumption and conditions from present position to overhead the alternate airport. Manual fuel flow and Manual groundspeed may be entered by using line select keys [1L] and [1R] for planning purposes and may be deleted by using the back key or exiting the fuel pages.
Press Next And see----------

Current fuel summary information.


Fancy stuff aside.

On Fuel pages 2 and 3, line select key 1L displays current fuel flow.

By pressing the line select key an alternative fuel flow can be manually entered that will allow for hypothetical fuel planning scenarios.

To return to actual fuel flow, press the 1L line select key, press the BACK key followed by the ENTER key.

Press NEXT  And see-------

Aircraft weight information is displayed along with specific range and other information as shown.


Press Next and see-----
 Fuel flow inputs received from each engine, and totals used.

Should fuel flow input fail or be inaccurate, pressing the appropriate ENG line select key L1 or L2 ??will allow for manual fuel flow entries.

NOTE In the event of a fuel flow failure lasting longer than four minutes, the flow field will show FAIL. To reboot place the cursor over the FAIL with the adjacent line select key and pressing the BACK key followed by the Enter key.
NOTE: To reset fuel used, use the R1 R2 select keys. Place the cursor into the field, enter a 0 and press the ENTER key.

NOTE APU fuel flow monitor is not configured in the 400.

Flight plan analysis and edit  see  tile 60
Flight plan unlinked tile 63 and tile 80
See also appendix on pilot and oceanic waypoints
XFILL” in Multiple FMS intallations
 A “XFILL” option is available to crossfill initialization, flightplan, and fuel data. In addition, other X fill features are available when needed by the pilot.

The FMS will have been configured at installation for either PUSH or PULL. With the PUSH mode the transmitting FMS will initiate the crossfill process. With the PULL mode the receiving FMS will initiate the process.

Dependant on SOP, we suggest the prefered mode should be the Push  and that pilot flying (PF) refrain from FMS operation in proximity to ground.
see UNS configuration sequence for more or  press
Data/ Maint/Config/Fms Config/ -next- /Xfill and see
image 114
On the INIT 1/1 page MSTR XFILL and XFILL are options are presented that can be selected. XFILL will crossfill date, time, and position. The MSTR XFILL will crossfill initial page, flightplan, and fuel information. Through the crossfill bus each FMS is made aware of the crossfill status of the other FMS.
Note; Before the MSTR XFILL option is made available the transmitting FMS must show that initialization, flightplan, and fuel information is complete and available. 

The procedure for the receiving FMS is to turn it on only, do not activate the ACCEPT key.
init1-1 dual installation

Note the bottom right two comments are not valid 400 data
 On Page DATA 1/4 the MSTR XFILL option is also available.

at R4

when pressed---See below
data14dual instal
 a FPL XFILL 1/1 page with a line select key for a  “TO” or “FROM” the other FMS.  R2


FPL XFILL 1/1dual install

When pressed see------

 A CROSSFILL RECEIVE page showing that the crossfill is in progress.

This page will remain until the crossfill is complete.


60 a
FPL 1/12 is the first of 12 pages of flight plan. The “TO” waypoint is identified by the change in color and by the “>” sign. When a SID is used for the departure, as is the case here,  the first navigation leg will  often reflect a climb in the takeoff corridor in accordance with standard takeoff procedure. In this case, runway course to 833ft MSL equals 400ft AGL. The FMS will then command the aircraft to turn and intercept the 341° course to NEZUG*. The identifier, NEZUG is followed by an "* ". This indicates that it is an overfly waypoint, requiring the aircraft to physically fly over the waypoint.  The aircraft will then turn right as indicated by the “→” to a heading of 070°.
Upon crossing the PAE 139° radial the aircraft will be  commanded to turn right to a heading of 165° to intercept the SEA 146° course to SUMMA intersection, as indicated on FLP2/2 page.

ETA time is computed based on groundspeed when airborne. Altitudes displayed to the right of the page are advisory only.

NOTE: When a leg terminates with an altitude, that altitude must be met before the FMS will sequence to the next leg.
fpl2 12a

If a runway change occurs, a new SID can be selected by pressing the menue key, then DEPART.

The new SID routing will replace the old SID routing.
// 74
When the SID, Route of Flight, STAR, and approach are linked together to make the flightplan, a common point between each part is required to maintain continuity. When that point does not exist, the FMS places a flashing “NO LINK” in the flightplan to alert the pilot to edit the flightplan.

To remove the “NO LINK” press the adjacent line select key (L3)which will bring up an overlay with DEL. Pressing the DEL line select key (R1) will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the the line (7 in this case).

NOTE: It is important to review the route or flightplan after linking any SID's or STAR's  to address any “NO LINK” messages that may have been added.

When a VECTOR is included in a procedure, this defaults the FMS to FMS heading mode requiring pilot intervention in the form of a FMS heading change, a manual leg change, or a Direct To (DTO).
In such cases, it may be prudent to leave the vector leg and the “NO LINK”until clearance is issued to bypass the vector leg.

NOTE: When a SID or STAR terminates in a VECTOR, the FMS uses an arbitrary 50nm to define the vector. This additional mileage is added to the overall flightplan distance.

Press the line select key for the VOR LKV and the overlay window appears.  as below----
fpl2 12a


Flight plan unlinked see also  tile 80


Showing  DEL, INFO, TUNE, and OVFLY.

As above to remove any waypoint press the adjacent line select key (L3) which will bring up the overlay window.

Pressing the DEL line select key (R1) will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the line

The the LKV frequency can be tuned by pressing the TUNE (R3) line select key.  (ARCDU in FMS mode).

Pressing the INFO line select key will access information about this VOR. as LKV 1/1 page.

The TUNE option is again available.


A waypoint can be designated as an overfly
waypoint by pressing the OVFLY line select key  (R4).

LKV* and CANCEL OVFLY is a toggle action.

Note: OFFST is a vertical function that is made available when the To waypoint has a associated altitude.

fpl2 12 c

The LKV* identifies the  waypoint as over fly.

To cancel any overfly waypoint request again highlight the fix as above, see the overlay window, as shown,  and  the CNCL OVFLY comment.

Pressing the R 4 button returns the designation to OVFLY
To add a new waypoint to the flightplan, first place the cursor at the point on the page where the waypoint will be entered.

i.e.  L4  to insert at line 8 of the flightplan after LKV.
New waypoints may be added with use of the LIST function or by direct entry with the alphanumeric keys   - - -as LMT in this case.
When the new waypoint is entered, the existing waypoint will be moved down.

A pilot waypoint can be created and input directly in the flightplan.
DTO (Direct to Opertation)

The FMS is capable of navigating to any point that is defined or can be defined.
Pressing the DTO  function key displays the standard DTO page with the TO waypoint as the default in the cursor field.

In this example shown the current flight plan is listed as the 1-5 pages.

The crew may select any waypoint from flightplan by number, by use of LIST function, or direct input.

Pressing the Enter  key will move to a page that prompts for the next waypoint.

Select the NX waypoint and press Enter . If no NX waypoint is selected, the flightplan will become unlinked from the NAV page.

For more see flightplan unlinked discussion.

Note  this example is unconnected to the tile above but leads the one below
The NAV 1/3 is now displayed with the FMS directing the aircraft from (PPOS) present position direct to LAS40 with DINGO as the NX waypoint.

Any “TO” waypoint that is followed with a “NX” waypoint is “linked” to the flightplan and will appear on the FPL pages prior to the “NX” waypoint.

Note: Any waypoints defined under the Navigation Reference System are included in the SCN 80X navigation database for point to point RNAV operation.
The DTO function can be used together with the LIST function to aid the pilot during an emergency divert to a nearby airport.

Select the DTO function to bring up the DTO page.

The LIST function key will use the aircraft position as the reference waypoint.

to see----------

From the LIST page select APT(airport).

Airports and their distance to the aircraft will be listed.

Use of the PLN LANG line select key (plain language) will assist in the selection of a divert airport.
and see-----
Information on this airport can be obtained from the NAV directory  under the DATA page 1.

The  number of the closest airport is defaulted into the cursor.

In this case we choose #4
The selected airport, KLKV is entered as the TO waypoint and a prompt for next appears. Entering a NX waypoint is not required.

Pressing the Enter key with no entry in the NX field, will result in the airport automatically being entered at the end of the flightplan.


With the airport at the end of the flightplan, entering an approach is easy.

NAV Pages

During normal navigation, three NAV pages can be displayed. When needed, additional pages are added as in the case when approach mode is active or if the command heading mode is in use.

NAV page 1 and 2 are similar in display.

In-flight, NAV page 1 and 2 will display from (FR), to (TO), and next (NX) waypoints with course, distance, time remaining, and estimated time of arrival in UTC for the next waypoint.

XTK (Crosstrack) defines actual aircraft distance right or left of course centerline.
Phase of flight (“T”terminal shown),
Phases are E (enroute), T (terminal) and A (approch)

WND, (Wind information displayed is direction true enroute and terminal, and magnetic when approach active)
GS  (ground speed) ,

NAV 1 will display
ANP  actual navigation performance, -- the radius of the circle of position based on a 95% probability that the aircraft is with in the circle.
RNP. required navagation performance, for the phase of flight (E +/- 5, T +/-1, or A+/-0.3)

NAV page 2 will display in addition:
BRG (bearing) from the aircraft position to the “TO” waypoint,
TKE (track error) in degrees right or left of the course centerline or angle of the path over the ground relative to the (desired) course.

HGD and MNVR (R1 & 2) are discussed below.


NAV page 3 displays
and the most significant NAV sensor(s) currently used. When two sensors have close to equal weighting in the NAV solution, they will be displayed together under NAV MODE, such as GPS/DME.

By pressing the 1R line select key, RNP can be entered to meet the current flight requirements as discussed in the two tiles below.
It can also be entered directly on the nav 2 page.

Also available are line select keys for UPDATE SENSors,
HOLD POSition (95)and SENSORS, (94) .

There is no use of UPDATE SENS


Whenever the FMS cannot connect the current NAV leg (the “FM” “TO” leg) to the flightplan, a FPL UNLINKED banner  will appear at the top of the page.

When the FPL UNLINKED message is present, on NAV page 1 or 2 the “NX” line will be empty.

The “NX” line is the interface between the NAV leg and the flightplan.

Once the waypoint in the “NX” line moves to the “TO” line, it no longer belongs to the flightplan. If the flightplan is deleted or modified, the waypoints in the “FM” “TO” lines will be unaffected, but the waypoint in the “NX” line will be deleted/empty.

It may be correct to have the FPL UNLINKED message if the current NAV leg does not have a follow on waypoint; such as going direct to a fix and expecting vectors.

If, however, the NAV leg needs to reconnect to the flightplan, either use the DTO function or press the “NX” line select key.
When there is no waypoint in this line, the “NX” key will respond by listing the flightplan waypoints.

Enter the reference number of the follow on waypoint and the FMS will connect the NAV leg to the flightplan.

The NAV leg will now sequence into the flightplan.
NO LINK's and GAP's

A GAP is a break in the route designed to prevent the navigation
computer from making an automatic leg change. Gaps have no effect until the route is copied into the flight plan.

To, insert a gap using the following procedure:
1. Use the NEXT and PREV keys to display the desired waypoint.
2. Use the LSKs to position the cursor over the waypoint that will
follow the GAP.
3. Press the LIST key to access the  LIST Page.
4. Press GAP, LSK [3R]. The display will return to the Route Page
and the gap (*GAP*) will have been inserted.
Gaps are deleted from the route in the same manner as waypoints.

/108 2009

When ATC gives vectors to intercept a NAV leg or airway which is not currently the active NAV leg manual leg changes can be made from the NA page 1 or 2.

Press the line select key adjacent to the “FR” or “TO” field, as desired. (L1 ) and see---- NAV LEG page.

A list of current flightplan waypoints is available for selection.  There are 6 pages of possibilities that can be accessed by the next key. presented in this view.

Enter the number for the new “FR” waypoint and press Enter .

The cursor will move to the “TO“ field and default to the next sequential waypoint.
Either push Enter a second time which will return the screen back to NAV page 1 or 2 with the new "FR"– "TO" waypoints,     
Input the number of the desired “TO“ waypoint and then push Enter .

Otherwise waypoint name can be entered by using the List function or typing the name in directly.
nav1,3 fr to sel
HDG, / CMD HDG  (Command/ FMS Heading Mode)

/106, 2009
The FMS has two heading functions, procedural
 and command.

Procedural heading  when the FMS is navigating and aligns the HSI course arrow track. No action is required on the part of the pilot; intercepts and leg sequencing are controlled by the FMS.

Command Heading (CMD HDG) is enabled when selecting HDG (R1) on the NAV page and allows the pilot to control the heading of the aircraft through the FMS.

When HDG is pressed the current heading of the aircraft will be presented in flashing mode.
Input the desired heading and press Enter .
The FMS will ask to confirm the turn direction or allow the pilot to change the turn direction.

To change the turn direction, use the + key. Press Enter to confirm the turn direction.

The FMS will turn and the R is removed from the window
CNCL HDG is available at the bottom of the window.
nav1,3sel hdg
Once the FMS is placed in CMD HDG, it will stay in command heading.

There are three ways to exit command heading,

1)  use DTO.

2) use CNCL HDG (R5).  FMS  returns to the FR/TO NAV leg, and turns to the intercept angle required depending on crosstrack distance -- maximum intercept angle will be 45°.

3) as illustrated- enter a new heading that will intercept the current NAV leg  and then tell the FMS to intercept.

nav1 3 intercept
An INTERCEPT option will be presented with a valid intercept  track (?) angle exists between 1°and 115°at line (R2).

Pressing INTERCEPT will display the INTERCEPT subheading, resulting in the FMS intercepting and joining the current FR/TO leg.

HDG is represented  -- CNCL HDG and INTERCEPT remains till track.

At anytime there is a need to cancel intercept, pressing HDG SEL will cause the FMS to revert back to command heading in a non-intercept mode; the INTERCEPT option will again be presented.
Another command heading function
ATC  - "turn  left / right a specific number of degrees."

1)Press CMG HDG
2) Press the “L” or “R” key to select the direction of turn and see----
3) enter the number of degrees of turn required.
4) Press Enter will result in the new heading being
5) Press Enter again will cause the FMS to command a turn to the computed heading.
nav13 turn sel
If it becomes necessary to set RNP to other than default, press line select key 5R.

Enter the desired RNP and press Enter .
The (M) will indicate that the RNP is manually set. To remove the manual entry and revert to default,  press the RNP line select key,  press Back followed by Enter .
NAV  3/3 page  = NAV 4/4 page

 SENSORS line  on the Nav 3 page( R4) select key is a shortcut to DATA page 3

 HOLD POS line select key(L5) on the NAV 3 page will  display the HOLD POS page. ---
ALSO When pressed, will take a snapshot of FMS and all sensor position’s at the moment . The frozen FMS position is displayed and line select keys are available for all sensors connected.

With the selection of a NAV sensor, the right hand field will display the sensor position and below it is the difference in position between this sensor and the FMS position. Each available sensor may be compared to the FMS position in this way. While the coordinates shown on the HOLD POS page are frozen, the FMS will continue to navigate normally, and this view of sensor positions has no effect on navigation.

Press the 1L line select key to move to the DEFINE POS page.

CAUTION:  Manually updating a FMS that uses GPS for
navigation could result in the GPS being deselected and the FMS reverting to DR navigation. Strongly recommend that manual update not be used unless there is a loss of ALL NAV sensors except ADC and heading.


//103 2009
 and see------
 The cursor will default to the REF WPT field. (at L1)

The identifier of a known position may be entered directly or by the LIST function.

(If the correct hold position coordinates are known, they
could be entered directly by pressing the coordinates field line select key 2R. This will allow entry of known coordinates or the GPS POS by pressing the line select key [3R] if GPS is operational. )
The display will now show the calculated radial and distance of the FMS from the referenced facility.

Check of the aircraft VOR and DME reveals that it (as illustrated) was on the EHF 180-degree radial at 1.5nm at the time the HOLD line select key was pressed. To update the FMS position to reflect the VOR radial and DME, enter 180.0 for the radial and 1.5 for the distance and press Enter or ACCEPT.

The FMS will be updated to the new position and a position update will be transmitted to all sensors.
Nav menue pages

NAV DISPLAY (cross track display scaling)


Press the Menu key when NAV page is displayed).
and see------
Crosstrack Instrument Display Sensitivity is
automatically selected by the phase of flight.  However---

Press the NAV DISPLAY line select key.

for details on default scaling see appendix phase of flight (default scaling)
And see-----
A selection of a scale is available

It will result in that scale staying in effect through a phase of flight change.

Selecting the TERMINAL line select key or the APPROACH line select key will change the CDI scaling, but will not change the GPS and FMS position error alarm limits. This must be accomplished by manually changing the RNP.

The following apply to CDI display sensitivity. Full scale deflection (2 dots)
Enroute display sensitivity + 5.0nm
Terminal display sensitivity + 1.0nm
Approach display sensitivity + 0.3nm


Allows the pilot to inhibit/declutter the display of the missed approach segment on the mapping mode of the pilot flight display.

From the Nav page select menu and see-----

press Map display Line (L2)

and see---------
M/APPR is an on off toggle

The MAP DISPLAY will automatically turn on if any
of the following occur:
1. Either the TO or the NX waypoint is a missed approach segment waypoint.
2. The approach is cancelled prior to reaching the FAF
3. The approach is exited because of a manual leg change
4. A new approach is inserted into the flightplan
LAT/LONG XING--Feature that will alert the pilot when a desired latitude or longitude is being crossed.

from theNav menu page
press R3


and see----

the cursor will default to the first LAT field.

Enter the latitude in degrees and minutes... and enter

note Erase is active when field is operational.
…and the FMS will calculate the longitude for the crossing waypoint. In addition, the FMS will calculate Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and Distance To Go (DTG).

Likewise if a long x ing is desired - -
With the cursor in the LAT field, pressing the Enter key will move the cursor to the LONG field and input the required longitude in degrees and minutes -

and again the FMS will make the required calculations
When within 2nm of the LAT/LONG waypoint, the
FMS will present the message LAT/LONG XING
FIX     Abeam Point & Radial Crossing

go to the
NAV MENU and s

elect the FIX line select key.

see   FIX 1/9 page.
There are 9 pages allowing for 9 fixes.

Enter the FIX for which you are to report abeam, the FMS will present the current radial and distance from that fix.
At the bottom of the page is the calculated abeam point, with ETA (estimated time of arrival) and DTG (distance to go).
The “ABEAM ON/OFF” option will toggle  the abeam alert.

“ERASE FIX” will clear the fix cursor field to allow entry of a new fix.

 2nm before reaching the abeam point the FMS will present an ABEAM WAYPOINT ALERT message.
When past the abeam point, the abeam field will
present ***. (L&R4)
Radial crossing

To get to the RAD  field, press the adjacent line select key. input radial desired and Enter

The FIX page will calculate a distance, ETA, and DTG to a crossing radial  from the related fix.

No message will be presented when the entered radial is crossed.

The fields will present **** upon crossing the radial

Distance crossing

To get to the DIS field, press the adjacent line select
key and press Enter .

By entering a distance into the DIS field, the FMS
will calculate the crossing radial for that distance.

The fields will present **** upon crossing the distance ??
MNVR [ (R2) Nav Page]  page functions  Holding

The FMS will define holding patterns, determine holding pattern entry procedures, and fly three types of holding patterns;
1) (HM),  hold to manual termination
2) (HF) hold to fix , and
3) (HA) hold to altitude .

The FMS NAV database will include holding patterns required to complete the SID, STAR, or approach procedure.

A pilot can only create an HM .

press HOLDING DEFN and see---
A waypoint can be entered into the HOLD FIX cursor field by
1) direct type in,
2) use of the LIST key, or
3) selecting a waypoint from the flightplan list.

This will allow the holding pattern to be entered into the flightplan.  i.e.  BASER to select it as the FIX

The FMS flies holding patterns according to TERPS procedures, but is allowed to fly in countries using PANOPS procedures. 

The HOLDING definition page will be displayed if the flightplan contains a holding plan required to complete the route .

In which case the DTO HOLD is made available at Line select (L5).

To edit the holding pattern inbound radial INBD use the adjacent line select key (L2), to activate the field.
Input desired and Enter. The cursor will advance to complete the editing.

The DIR field is the course outbound. If the clearance is to hold on a radial, the radial can be entered into the DIR field and the INBD field will be automatically calculated and entered.

The holding pattern turn direction may be changed
by using the + key or entry of L or R key.

The cursor will automatically advance to TIME. Time is entered in minutes and tenths of a minute and will default to one minute.

If a non standard distance is required for the inbound leg -  manually select the DIST line select key.
Distance for the inbound leg is entered in nautical miles and tenths of a nautical mile. When distance is selected, the diagram will show DIST for the inbound leg.

The entry procedure is calculated based on the navigational leg prior to the holding waypoint.
Depending on the inbound course to the hold, the FMS will enter the pattern using a direct, teardrop, or parallel entry, per standard procedure. Based on the dividing line between entry procedures, the FMS will allow a Ī 20° area where either entry may be used.
By pressing the ENTRY line select key, (R4)and see---

alternate entry procedure may be selected if available. note
If not with in the Ī 20° area, no option will be presented.

With the holding definition completed, Pressing the ARM HOLD line select key will enter the holding definition into the flightplan.
A DTO HOLD option is  then presented and can be used to go DTO (direct to) to the holding entry waypoint.
1) ONLY An off flightplan waypoint will present  a DTO HOLD option.
2) The HOLDING page will retain the defination for the holding pattern if a another page is selected.
3) If a new holding fix is selected, the current holding pattern defination will be lost.

note example screens does not match example above
The holding fix will be coded as overfly with the addition of the *

The  ARROW indicates direction of turn, in this case, a right hand turn.
HLD indicates it’s a holding pattern and 115° indicates the inbound course.

The terminator for the holding pattern is HOLD (see line 24), which indicates it is a manually terminated holding pattern.
If you should change your mind!!!

Prior to reaching the hold, pressing the DISARM HOLD line select key will produce the HOLDING page with an option to DISARM HOLD.
Pressing the DISARM HOLD line select key will remove the holding pattern from the flightplan and the aircraft will continue on .



The DISARM HOLD function will not remove the holding pattern if the FMS is committed .

The subheading HOLDING indicates the FMS is in the hold. see below (125)

then why is it there???

The NAV page will present HOLD ARMED when inbound TO to the holding fix.
When within 15 seconds of crossing the holding fix, the FMS will present HOLDING. At this time the FMS holding defination is locked and the FMS has calculated the affect of wind. The pattern will be flown so as to fly the inbound leg according to the defined time or distance.
When the holding patten is entered, the leg terminator (HOLD) will be the TO waypoint.

With the holding leg active, the HSI course arrow will define the holding pattern inbound leg, the milage window will be line of sight nautical miles to the holding fix, and the FMS bearing pointer will point to the holding waypoint.
With the aircraft established in holding, there are three ways to exit the holding pattern.
1) DTO

1) The direct to
DTO function with the selection of a new waypoint will automatically cancel the holding pattern.
select the MNVR (R2)key

and see - - - the Maneuver holding page

2) Selecting PROCEED will result in the aircraft finishing the holding pattern and upon crossing the holding fix the next time will result in the aircraft exiting the holding pattern and proceeding on course.

and see on NAV p[age

Selecting proceed reconnects the FROM and TO  to nav lines to the flightplan.

Note:  unconnected example

CMD  HDG function is used, then with the new heading active, manually select the new NAV leg using the manual leg change  technique.
The FMS provides the capability to track to or from any known waypoint on a programmed radial; similar to tracking on a VOR radial.
Caution Before entering this mode pilots should ensure thay are in heading mode or command heading mode.
This Pseudo VOR feature is accessed from the NAV page, by pressing the MNVR line select key.

and see the MANEUVER page,

select the PVOR line select key. (R2)


and see------The PVOR definition page ....

Highlighting the current "TO" waypoint from the flightplan, and subsequent waypoints will be displayed in a list. The desired PVOR point may be:
1) chosen from the list presented,
2) manually entered at the cursor, or
3) the LIST  function key may be used.

After the waypoint is identified, the cursor will move to the DESIRED TRACK field.
A desired track may be entered directly and the radial for inbound tracking will be calculated...

…or ;

By using the line select key or Enter key to move the cursor to the INBOUND field (R3),  an inbound radial may be defined and the desired track will be calculated.
Once the definition is made, the ACCEPT line selectkey will be highlighted.

Pressing ACCEPT will change the current NAV leg to the PVOR and an intercept angle of up to 45ľ towards the defined radial will be commanded.
To fly outbound on a radial, first select a waypoint
If the waypoint is on the flightplan,
do not select it from the flightplan list,   enter it with
 1) LIST key or
2) type it in manually.

Suggested   place a GAP following the flightplan waypoint (at NX). This will help prevent  inadvertent leg sequencing.

Again, if on a heading that will intercept, remember to press the INTERCEPT option on command heading or the aircraft will fly through the PVOR course.
SXTK  selected crosstrack operation
  parallel   navigation

Select MNVR on the Nav 1 or 2 page

see the MANEUVER page
select SXTK. (R3)

Note :  enables navigation parallel to  the current NAV LEG only. in  802 software

nav23 pgae

see   SXTK field   cursor on the NAV page.  (L4)

A desired offset may be input  either left or right of course by using the +/- key to select left or right of course and then inputing the amount of offset in 10ths of a nautical mile, followed by the Enter key.

The FMS will command a turn to intercept the SXTK course.
The intercept angle will be  needed, but limited to a maximum of 45°.

i.e.  5.0 has  been entered for the crosstrack distance.
On a map display, the original course line will remain and show the relationship of the SXTK course on the HSI to the original course.
To cancel the selected crosstrack, use the MNVR line select key then press CNCL SXTK. The FMS will then command a change in heading to intercept the original NAV leg.
The selected crosstrack function will parallel the “From To leg” until either cancelled or reaching the next leg change over point. Upon reaching it will
(1) intercept the next leg and proceed on course.
(2) intercept an extension of the next leg.
(3) turn to a 45° intercept angle and intercept the new leg.
PERF 1  Performance

When airborne, by pressing the PERF function key, see----
the PERF 1/1 page provides a synopsis of in-flight performance information found on the fuel and flightplan pages. Manual entries may not be made on this page.

Some are the result of input from other pages--
ETP/PNR  - -- Equal Time Point & Point of no Return

From the PERF 1 page select the menu function key and see------

Temp selection is a toggle between Fahrenheit and Centigrade at (R 1/2) line select.

Select the ETP/PNR ( L5) line select key

 and see----

Begin on ETP/PNR 1/4 by entering departure and arrival airports and possible divertion airports.

Many crews never go past this page as the ***shown in this illustration will be filled in cruise operations from the known winds.
To calculate ETP and PNR, go to page 2 enter the COAST OUT and COAST IN airports from the list compiled from page 1.

Information for FPL WINDS, FOB, FF, and TAS will be pre filled by the FMS if available. WINDS OUT and WINDS IN will be filled from forecast flightplan winds if available or can be manually entered by the pilot.
For ENG OUT and PRESSURE LOSS ETP/PNR calculations, required information must be entered manually on page 3.

like what
and what is menu
do believe these numbers come from flight plan??
Display of ETP/PNR information  is in page 4

by pressing 1L line select key.
and selecting

the page of your "dreams".



VNAV Vertical  Enroute Navigation Operations

Prior to any Vnav operations the FMS first requires a bottom of descent point and altitude.
While this information can be input on the Vnav Path page the altitude translation/programming between this page and the flight plan pages can be problematic.
It is therefore recommended that the pilot first input the suspected??/desired/cleared altitude into the FPL page  - - in this case 13000' at DINGO  is input  by highlighting the (R4) position, inputting 13000'  and Enter.

However no calculation can be made with the *no link* in the flight plan between yor present position and the descent point,  and the so that must be removed. -- - -
highlight ( L3) and Del

IN the ALT/FL field.  If  4 or 5 digits are entered, the entry will be interpreted as an altitude. If 2 or 3 digits are entered, the entry will be interpreted as a flight level and, once the E key is pressed, the letters “FL”will be inserted ahead of the digits. To enter 850 feet, it must be entered as 0850 or the FMS will consider it a flight level.
Press VNAV Function key
and see-----
(Vnav Path  definition page. The cursor will default to the TGT V/S line. (R1) awaiting crew input. Line (R1) will be blank if no value has been entered on the Menu page.)

(If the crew has not followed the recomendation above then this is what will be seen  - as the FMS assumes the vertical path is to the next waypoint with a recommended /programed altitude. - -and Dingo is not shown. This then required additional programming and is a distraction.)

Press the Menu function key

vnav path
and see-------VNAV MENU Defaults page
allows for creating :
1)  TGT V/S. (R2)
The TGT V/S can be changed as desired on the VNAV PATH page (see above) without affecting the default value.  When a Default value is entered (-2100 in this case) that value will be projected on the VNAV Path page then it is first entered.

2)  TGT FPA (
 Used for setting enroute VNAV FPA.  (-3.00 in this case )

TGT FRA is an FMS tool designed to establish a flight path angle to minimize power adjustments during descent. Recommend starting at -3.00° and adjusting as necessary.
The enroute FPA maximum of 6 deg. and approach FPA or  4 deg. (if no Steep Appr. Sup.) is set within the aircrafts configuration at purchase.

Note: approach VNAV  FPA is preset in the database.
When an approach transition or, in some cases, a STAR procedure is entered into the flightplan, the FMS will calculate vertical crossing altitudes based on the TGT FPA entered by the pilot.

Note: default is set at 3 deg.

An “X” preceding the altitude in the flightplan and on the VNAV page indicates the altitude was calculated by the FMS.
The FMS uses the  final approach course fix (FACF) or "gate fix" pseudo glideslope crossing altitude to back calculate the enroute waypoint VNAV crossing altitudes.

Database altitude restrictions, “at, at-or-above, or at-or-below”, are entered into the calculation to insure these restrictions are not violated. These altitude restrictions may result in the FMS creating an angle that is different than the TGT FPA entered by the pilot.

Thus  if the recomendations above  were followed and the FMS is navigating to Dingo , when the the VNAV function key is pressed the crew  would see----

In this scenario they have preselected a 2100' rate of descent and  it entered it at (R1). They confirm and enter.

Thus they have created a TOD (top of descent point) and when VNAV is selected  the vertical path indicator will appear on the PFD and arming and descent on path will take place. In this senario the vpath will contunue on down to cross Tacub at 9189" unless some constraint (alt sel) overides that program.
vpath dingo
VNAV OFFST(offset)
When ATC requires a level off at an offset of say 10 miles before a fix there are two ways to approach the issue.


use the VWPT SEL overlay - - - -
From the VNAV PATH page select the To  v waypoint

 ( L3) in this case DINGO.

This will deliver the VWPT page.

vpath dingo
and see--------
Select the reference number for the desired waypoint from the list, and press Enter .
The cursor remains over the waypoint to allow the offset to be entered.  In this case -10 has been input and Entered. 

Note: The option is + or - with - ( before the fix) the default. 
The +/- numeric key toggles the "+ " and "- ".


Select/highlight the fix of interest on the FPL page and see the overlay window--------

Select the OFFST line ( R5) and see VNAV PATH window as below

Note: If the offset fix does not have an associated altitude in the flight plan the OFFST line will be  blank.

Once  the required offset is Entered the cursor moves to the altitude field and---
Once that is entered the cursor will move to the TGT V/S field.

Again  the  defaulted TGT V/S  - 2100 is shown and,

when Entered....

vpath dingo

The distance and time are computed to the TOD and the FPA of –2.95° will be displayed. Once the FPA is calculated it becomes the criteria for the descent. Changes in ground speed or direction of flight  will result in the TGT V/S changing in order to fly the FPA.

Note: A holding pattern entered in the flight plan between the aircraft and the TOD will result in cancelation of the TOD calculation. An attempt to re-enter the TOD information will result in a LEG RESRICTION message being presented. No TOD calculation can be made until the aircraft is past the holding pattern or the holding pattern is removed from the flightplan.
Crews  can create a vertical profile by entering altitudes for follow on  waypoints, in the flightplan. Adjacent to the flightplan waypoints are dashed lines that can be selected by the adjacent line select key for entry of an @ altitude or flight level. Waypoints selected and their altitudes will automatically appear on the VNAV page.

It is recomended that the VNAV page not be used for this function.
A total of 6 VNAV waypoints can be viewed in the VNAV pages. Two on page 1 and four on page 2.

Distance, FPA (flight path angle), and VSR (vertical speed required) is calculated between the each waypoint.

The CNCL VNV (cancel VNAV) line select key is available on page 2 only.

Pressing the CNCL VNAV line select key (L5) at any time will cause the mode to cancel and VNAV displays will go invalid.
Two minutes prior to the TOD, the “TOP OF DESCENT ALERT” message will appear and remain on the message page until passing TOD.

NOTE: To capture FMS VNAV the pilot must first acknowledge the TOP OF DESCENT ALERT message, and then arm flight guidance VNAV.

VNAV is not available prior to this point??
Fifteen seconds prior to the TOD, a VPATH CAPTURE message will appear indicating capture of the vertical path.
Fifteen seconds prior to a vertical waypoint  the VERTICAL WPT ALERT message will be presented.
when the vpath is captured see-----

VDEV and an indication of deviation, in feet, above or below the programmed flight path will replace the TOD advisory .

The HSI vertical deviation indicator will display this deviation . Vertical steering signals will be provided to a compatible FGS.

To access the Vertical Direct To mode on the VNAV PATH page, press the VTO line select key. 
and see-------

This mode allows for creating an immediate descent FPA
to a vertical waypoint.
The VERTICAL TO page displays a listing of all defined VNAV waypoints.

Input the reference number of the desired waypoint in the cursor field. After Enter is pressed the display will change back to ------
the VNAV PATH 1/2 page

The TGT V/S will be the vertical speed required when VTO was selected.

The VTO line select key (R5) is still available to establish a new vertical clearance.

Using DTO or the DTO Holding Fix feature will not cancel the VNAV mode for waypoints prior to TOD.

VNAV in holds is complex kaka,  avoid it. see page 158
SCN 80X cannot fly a descent in a procedure turn. A manually controlled descent by the pilot will be required to fly a procedure turn approach transition that requires a descent.

CAUTION: Once a descent is commenced, entering a higher TGT V/S to comply with a “best rate” clearance from ATC may result in the aircraft leveling off and proceeding to a newly computed TOD and FPA based on the higher descent rate. If ATC request a “best rate” descent, DO NOT use FMS VNAV.
Pilots are reminded that vertical navigation is point to point only  - - it is not along track. That is to say that if you have vpath'ed to a gate fix and the along track is not direct as in a RNAV approach T path, a DME arc etc  you are flying on a BOWL and the vspeed will vary  as the turns are initiated.  Similarly it cannot calculate for the short or smart turn.

Approaches consist 3 parts: transition (arrival), approach, and  missed. These segments are loaded individually to make up a complete approach.
Consists of a series of legs or procedures to align it with the final approach. It may be edited by the crw, the remainder will be unaffected
No Procedure Turn (No-PT)

No procedure turn or holding pattern
Procedure Turn
A course reversal to align with the final approach course.
A specific course for a specific distance and inbound to intercept the final approach course.

When a Category A & B and a Category C & D procedure are presented on the chart, only the Cat C & D will be in the database.
Holding Pattern In Lieu Of A Procedure Turn

Another type of course reversal, also used to descend to an altitude more in line with the final approach fix altitude
A constant distance path relative to a DME until turning to the final approach

APPR PAN (L5)will be presented on the flight plan menu 2 page onlywhen an approach is programed into the flightplan,

It is an important part of the review process.

APPR PLAN 1/3 will provide a basic definition of the approach selected to include;

1) type of approach,
2) NAV facility, if any,
3) status of GPS for the approach,
4) final approach information.
Page 2 and 3 and any pages to follow will present final segment waypoints, course, distance, glideslope angle, and altitudes.

This information can be used to help determine where to configure the aircraft, to determine glideslope intercept altitudes, and to determine approach power settings based on vertical flight path angle.
TEMP COMP (Temperature Compensation)
A colder than standard temperature (, ISA) will result in the true MSL altitude being lower than the indicated altitude . FMS created glideslope uses barometric altimeter inputs to create the "glidepath"  A correction table has been incorporated  in the FMS.
TEMP COMP, (L2)  is available on FPL MENU 2/2.

when pressed:


 The ARPT ELEV will be prefilled with the airport or runway elevation from the flight plan approach,
at LSK [2R] but can be manually overwritten.
By entering a temperature, either Celsius or Fahrenheit, into the ARPT TEMP line, altitude adjustments can be made.
The temperature range that can be entered is 0ľC to -70ľC and +32ľF to 94ľF.

 (M) under ARPT indicates a manual   input.




A “calculator function” is available such that any altitude can be entered on Temperature Compensation Page 1 at LSK [4L], and the resulting temperature correction will be displayed.

With temperature compensation on and a -30°C temperature entered, the altitudes are adjusted.

Temperature compensation will be projected throughout the enroute VNAV waypoints.

TCMP on the flightplan and NAV page will indicate the temperature compensation feature is active and the T prior to the altitude indicates a temperature corrected altitude.
 and see----------
CANCEL replaces ACTIVATE and is the crew's means of turning this feature off.

The subheading TEMP COMP ON signifies that temperature compensation is active. Temp comp will stay active for any approach selected at the current airport listed on the flightplan. Deleting the current airport from the flightplan, deleting the flightplan, or cycling FMS power will cancel temp comp.

Note: Any manual change to airport temperature or elevation may deactivate Vertical Navigation if it is active. (5-120)
Vectors in the Arrival (transition)

An example is the arrival into Tucson International (KTUS). The DINGO5 STAR terminates at MAVVA intersection with a heading to vector leg of 075 deg.

It will require manual activation of the approach and pressing of the FMS heading  intercept line select key.


For the RNAV (GPS) Z 11L approach, selecting the DINGO transition will result in the aircraft leaving the STAR at DINGO intersection for automatic approach (gate) activation at CALLS intersection.

Keeping both procedures available may be the best decision.

Simply doing nothing will continue the aircraft on the STAR.

To EDIT the Arrival there are various means available.
When directed by ATC :-

You can fly DTO :

DTO function key,
input 22,

And see on the NAV page


You can remove the  "NO LINK "

Press the adjacent line select key which will bring up an overlay with DEL. Pressing the DEL line select key will highlight DEL and pressing it a second time will delete the NO LINK .
You can select-- flight plan forward-

Recall the flight plan - -

Highlight the number 23 by pressing L4,  input  the waypoint number 27 and press.

YOU thus will have guided the aircraft to leave the star DINGO for the transition DINGO in the approach.

and see-----



direct entry to DTO

On many occasions ATC may give a clearance direct to a waypoint on the approach chart or some other point.

You press the DTO key and input AMAZE either 
1) directly typing, in the highlighted blank space 
2) from the list presented if available or 
3)  selecting the list function.
See DTO operations

You must then link into the flight plan

One way is to press the NX line select key.

And see------

note: photo not co-ordinated with text.

This will allow for selection of the follow on way point from the flightplan.

Once the waypoint is selected, the NAV page is now linked to the flightplan.

The clearance is direct to LIPTE for the course reversal; cleared approach.

Select DTO key and see -------

The crew must decide which LIPTE to go to.    LIPTE* with the asterisk, which is the entry point for the holding pattern. Being that this is a hold to fix (HF) pattern,

Selection of the second LIPTE (LIPTE/H) will result in the FMS not entering the holding pattern.

Press 25 and ENTER

think "LIPKE +" or "LIPKE - Hold"
The FMS NAV page is now linked to the flightplan and will enter the holding pattern for the course reversal and the approach transition.

Once the aircraft has entered the holding pattern and if there is a requirement to continue holding more than one turn.

Press the MNVR  R2  line select and
198//341 See

an option to continue the hold is provided.

When pressed L4 - -----see

The holding pattern is converted to hold until manually terminated (HM).

This requires pilot action to exit the holding pattern.


When it is time to exit the holding pattern and fly the approach,  there are 2 options

Option 1
select MNVR

and see --------

select  PROCEED. 

and see--------

The PROCEED  option will convert the holding pattern into a HF pattern and the aircraft will now exit holding upon crossing the holding waypoint.

Option 2
At any point use the DTO function.

Remember the LEFT and RIGHT (turn) functions are operational. (R 1&2)
Insure both the desired waypoint and the turn direction and are first selected before pressing ENTER.

Note in illustrated case use first  "CALLS"#28   vice #25 (see 310 a note below)

The selection of the transition will bring the procedure turn definition into the flightplan.

It is a calculated non-track program using wind and groundspeed and calculates the lat/long of the two procedure turn waypoints. The FMS will navigate to them and calculate mileage for presentation on the primary flight display.

The 400 MFD display will draw the process.

NOTE: this is a procedure right turn   (PR-TRN)- - non standard nomenclature


Although the procedure turn waypoints are presented on the FMS and map display, the flightplan will not display these waypoint.

get photo
An arc leg (AF) is a procedural leg that cannot be created in the flightplan and must come from the database.
The arrow indicates the direction of arc, in this case a right arc. The distance of 15.0 is the arc distance from the LMT VOR.
Vectors to an approach.
Assumption FMS nav mode

If vectors are given use CMD HDG   input and ENTER.
90 in this case....

Select FR line (L1)

 and see...... a blank FR Line....
Select waypoint from list presented and input appropriate number (25 in this case).

Press ENTER 2X and the following waypoints are automatically entered

See as....
and press return

note:unco-ordinated   - photo needed
If heading is a valid intercept, an INTERCEPT at R2 line select key will be presented.


if and only if,
the TO window equals  'approach gate' the track is extended backwards  as in the APPR mode.

PVOR is another method of extending Approach Centerline
The clearance is to fly the assigned heading and intercept the Teterboro VOR DME or GPS-A final approach course outside WANES intersection.
As above
One way is to manually activate the approach. This will extend the inbound course

another is -- select MNVR (R3)

 and see--------

Select  PVOR  (R2)

and see -------

The page will display the current "TO" waypoint from the flightplan, and subsequent waypoints will be displayed in a list. 

The desired PVOR point may be chosen
1) from the list, by inserting the corresponding number,
2) manually by entered  a waypoint/fixat the cursor, or
3) the L(ist) feature may be used.

After the waypoint is identified, the cursor will move to the DESIRED TRACK field


by using the R3 line select key (or ENTER twice) for the INBOUND field.

IF inbound radial  is used --  the desired track will be calculated. Prefered method

Once the definition is made, the ACCEPT line select key will be available.

Pressing ACCEPT will change the current NAV leg to the PVOR and an intercept angle of up to 45 deg.  towards the defined radial will be commanded---- 

If in LNAV and
If CND HDG was not first initiated when in the LNAV mode

That part that takes the aircraft to the runway.


It starts at the approach label / capture fix (*approach gate*)and are terminated by * EOA* label (End Of Approach)

at which point the missed approach is initiated.

If other fixes are present in the database between the 'approach gate' and EOA they will be present

*Approach gates* will always be at least 2 miles prior to the FAF. If a suitable fix is not present in the data base one will be created.
If an *approach gate* fix is the last waypoint in the transition it will be listed twice   " the sandwich"   in the flightplan. do not delete one of these waypoints.

The approach segment should NOT be edited including*EOA*. This turns off all of the 'approach activation(s)'  that occurs at the *approach gate*.

ARM APPR   Armed approach

Available at 50 NM.
Auto at 30NM.

At 50nm from  airport, with (anything but ILS) an approach in the flightplan, the FMS will present an ARM APPR (arm approach) line select key (R3) which will allow for manual arming. 

Automatic approach arming occurs at 30nm from the airport.

as below

and see

2) ARM APPR active (R3).
3) Sets terminal scaling (T)   see at ( L4).. track +/-1nm.
4) It analyzes the NAV sensor requirements to fly the approach and alerts the pilot. Pressing the prompt tunes the VHF receiver (if ARCDU in FMS mode.)
5) If GPS is used for the approach, a GPS RAIM prediction will automatically be performed.

A failure of approach aid will void the approach guidance with no sig.warning!! i.e. no RAIM, Localizer fail, GNS based VOR not WGS 84 approved.
ACT APPR   Activate Approach  

FMS scaling

When the Approach mode is active, angular CDI scaling is invoked. The CDI sensitivity is then Ī 2.0 degrees, approximating that of a normally sited localizer on a runway of about 9,000 feet in length.
Angular scaling is maintained to the point where full scale CDI deflection is equal to
Ī 0.3 nm. The system maintains linear scaling at Ī 0.3 nm to the end-of-approach.

page 5-112 FMS manual

ATC vectors to final

Can be selected when in APPR ARMED mode by selecting ACT APPR  line key. (R3)

When selected
1) Additional  NAV APPR Page 2/4  is available.  NAV , 2, and 3 are renamed Nav 1.4, 3/4 , and 4/4 .
see tile 222 for details

2) <SCALE CHANGE> indicates  approach scaling active.
XTK (T) becomes XTK (A) at (L4)
  indicates  XTK (A) approach scaling -- track +/-1 reducing to +/- .3

3) CMD HDG automatically activated (reverse video)  (R1)

4) FR waypoint as INBOUND  (L1)

5) TO waypoint as the first waypoint past the 'approach gate' ,  All intervening waypoints from the present FR-TO leg to the first approach waypoint will be sequenced (out), and HSI guidance will be to that waypoint.
Desired track or inbound course for the approach, stated, presented and extended out 50 NM.

6) CNCL APPR is presented (R4)

7) CNCL HGD is presented (R5)

Crosstrack error (lateral deviation) - The HSI course deviation display will be similar to a localizer in that full scale (two dot) deflection indicates a course error of 2° to 0.3 nm.
Lateral valid (NAV flag out of view)

GlideSLOPE (vertical deviation) HSI VPATH presented
Vertical valid (Glideslope G/S flag out of view)
Note: Glideslope will become active  -when within +/-  20 deg. of inbound final approach course. (revised from 12.5 nm. lateral see updates file p 321)

Note there is no match up between these screens and those above. 

Regardless of actual position, the waypoints will not sequence and the TO waypoint will remain the same until the aircraft is within 5nm of the inbound course and the intercept track is less that 90 deg.° of the inbound course. Once these conditions are satisfied and the aircraft passes theTO waypoint, an automatic leg change to the next approach waypoint will occur.

see updates to fms
8)  When the correct intercept angle is established
Note: "correct intercept angle: as per amendment from Universal undated is now <90 deg for an approach and 135 deg. enroute vice the original statement of 115 deg in their original document.

the INTERCEPT LSK on NAV Page (R2) will be presented and  must be pressed to allow interception of the final approach course.

Note: Intercepts will not take place if not in LNAV. It is therefore suggested that all vectored FMS approaches (except ILS approaches) be conducted using CMD HDG mode.

Note:  If the FMS flies into a " vector" segment  CND  HDG is NOT automatically entered.  see below

9) Press Intercept   Selection will place INTECEPT at top of nav list as in this unrelated photo.

// 352

Flying arrivals with a vector to manual(VM)  terminated leg  may require a variation to normal procedures.  As in the Down Wind Terminators (DWT )

It will appear as a VECTOR leg  as shown

Fly the  leg as depicted until crossing the leg terminator; in this case, DUTIR.
Upon sequencing to the VM leg…

see PROC HDG in blue as shown

do not understand why this does not go directly to command hdg??

Select command heading (CMD HDG) and press  Enter .

As soon as Enter is pressed, the FMS will  automatically sequence to the CF leg. (center line extended)

Now, per ATC vectors, use FMS CMD HDG to turn the aircraft to an intercept heading for the CF leg.

follow as in tile 221 and then see as in tile 222

10) When the inbound course is captured, the heading mode will cancel. 

11)    approach will be named on the top line in blue replacing APPR ACTIVE    
Nav 1/4 becomes Nav Appr 1/4
NAV APPR 2/4  replaces the ANP / RNP  with XWIND  crosswind component and VSR ( vertical speed required).

Do not understand why anp and rnp where not simply replaced and all else left alone poor

Select VNAV set MA altitude

generally monitor VDEV when <1000 call gear , flap , and checklist

flap 35 can be selected on vertical path "off the peg"...

note these pages are a composite. not real sequence.
223 //


AUTO Approach activation   //gate passage

1)APPR ARMED is active  as shown----------
2) The angle of intercept or track error is within 80 deg. of the final approach course.

Then 15 sec. prior to the*approach gate*  gate,  approach goes active and all items of Manual Activation occur along with the following:
1) Altitude selector can dialed above current altitude without defaulting a V path to Pitch
2) If VNAV is armed ALT will auto cancel upon intercept of Glide path from above and Glide path will commence tracking.
3) A MISSD  APPR line select key will be presented.

4) GA button becomes active.  Terminates current approach, vertical nav. info and sequences EOA .(5-124)if config)??

Note: At any time, if a DTO is performed to a waypoint in the approach, and the approach was previously armed, then the approach will automatically activate. (5 -111)

Note If on missed approach,(and return try again) the FMS will not automatically rearm until placed on a navigational path to a point prior to the approach gate.
In the event of no designated capture fix the FMS will go approach active 2nm prior to the FAF if a crosstrack of less than 0.3nm.
and see------

we see this 3 and 4 pages as not being correctly named

Nav 4/4 is identical in function to Nav 3/3 page



ILS approaches
There is no Nav to Nav transfer in software 802.

These are advisory approachs (as per  FMS configuration)  ARM and ACT APPR  lines are not presented.
Guidance to the final track on FMS requires a FROM  TO input at the approach gate  or PVOR as above     see tile 350
Crews are expected to transfer navigation to Heading mode and ILS as appropriate.

In 802.2 software, the *EOA*or End of Approach gap,  will not automatically sequence to the first missed approach leg.  *EOA* must be edited out  in order that FMS  LNAV is set for  a missed approach.

As with all missed approaches, if the pilot uses the aircraft go-around system, the aircraft pitch up, wings level command will come from the aircraft flight director. The FMS will not provide any vertical guidance. To reconnect the flight director to the FMS, flight director NAV mode must be selected.
Advisory approaches
ILS approaches are identified at time of FMS configuration as advisory 

Such approaches turn off the NAV sensor during the final approach segment, They can be entered into the flightplan, but the approach segment cannot be flown through the FMS.   They can, however, be used for the transition and missed approach portion of the approach. Procedural turns, arcs, holding patterns in lieu of procedural turns, vectors, and straight in approaches to the FAF can be flown. Sometime before the FAF, select the VHF radio as the source to fly the approach segment.

Where to leave the FMS and select VHF navigation is technique.

Such approachs will not present the ARM, ACCT APPR, CNCL APPR, MISSD APPR options that are required of an enabled approach. 

Localizer AND Backcourse Approaches
Both are flown with the FMS providing navigational control throughout the entire approach. The FMS must have localizer reception and be able to track it.. The FMS will use GPS to identify the Lat/Long of the FAF and MAP. These approaches will be followed on the arrival page with a "G"
IF approach is not WGS-84 compliant guidance will fail at the FAF.


Following the arming  of the approach, the FMS will require that the ILS frequency be tuned and will prompt with the TUNE APPR line select key a R3

If this is not accomplished, further prompting by FMS message will occur. 
Failure to tune the Nav. radio to the required frequency will result in the FMS guidance failure  .
Otherwise PFD will annunciate  - -  'localizer tracking in effect'.

The FMS will present both lateral and vertical guidance for the backcourse approach the same as a localizer approach.

The difference between a conventional back course approach and an FMS flown back course approach is the course arrow will point to the landing runway of the back course approach and the pressing of the aircraft flight director BC switch for most aircraft is not required.

If the backcourse approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope. Check the approach plan on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability.

get phto

not avail on 300


RNAV Approaches
The pilot will only receive notice by message if the predictive RAIM fails to meet approach criteria. If RAIM will not be available, a CDU message NO RAIM AT FAF or NO RAIM AT MA is displayed. This meets the RAIM prediction criteria for most countries IAW TSO 129; a few countries may have requirements for a manual RAIM prediction.

The real time integrity and accuracy of GPS will be the only criteria that will prevent a GPS approach from being flown.

Thus guidance failure, an apporach flag, and a missed apporach requirement.

The term RNAV (GPS) is too along for database  use.  ATC use the term RNAV .

RNAV (RNP), LPV approaches are not approved at this time LNAV/VNAV and LNAV varies with jurisdiction.???

DeHavilland Dash 8 (Q-400): NAV for lateral and VNAV for vertical. All non-precision
approaches are certified including BC and LOC.
The RNAV (GPS) approach format is used internationally Some charts use (GPS) and some use (GNSS), but the formats are similar.

VOR and VOR DME approaches may be flown with the use of GNSS/GPS if designated GPS in the title. Reception of the VOR is not required. FMS will use both and if one fails, the FMS will continue on the remaining NAV sensors. A message stating loss, but no flagging of the navigation display, will occur.

In VOR and DME approaches the FMS may deselect GPS during the approach arming process and must have VOR and DME to continue the procedure. FMS distance may substitute for DME. 

If the approach name is followed by a G, the approach will retain the GPS for navigation even if it is not an overlay approach.

The FMS uses a maximum of three letters to identify an approach type. Both VOR and VOR DME approaches are identified by the letters VOR. 

If the approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope.

Check the APPR PLAN (approach plan) on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability. (available when arrival entered)

The FMS does not use the NDB as a NAV sensor,. If (G) in the title the NDB is not required.  If not the NDB must be used,
but the FMS may be use to supplement NDB navigation.
If the NDB approach meets the criteria for a glideslope, the approach will contain a baro VNAV glideslope.
Check the approach plan on flightplan menu page 2 for glideslope availability


 The FMS uses barometric altimeter inputs through the air data computer to monitor the altitude of the aircraft relative to the defined "glideslope"from the database. The pseudo glideslope is computed by first starting at the runway threshold crossing altitude, then computing an angle that will pass through the final approach fix database altitude, and projected outward.  For any approach with the final approach course in line with the runway, an attempt will be made to code a vertical path.

The glideslope is calculated up to an angle that will clear any stepdown fix.

The minimum descent altitude or decision altitude are not in the FMS database. The FMS glideslope will terminate at the missed approach point and the aircraft glideslope indicator will bias out of view.

A circling only approach with only circling minimums listed and the inbound course is not inline with the runway, vertical navigation may not be provided.

If the missed approach point is beyond the runway threshold, vertical navigation may not be provided.

If the pseudo glideslope is too steep vertical navigation may not be provided.

If the pseudo glideslope is too shallow vertical navigation may not be provided, or may be raised to 3 deg.

Enroute to Approach VNAV transition
It is possible for the FMS enroute VNAV to interface directly into the FMS approach pseudo glideslope.
Since the termination point of the enroute VNAV through the approach transition is at the start of the approach glideslope, (the approach gate fix), the FMS should drop the enroute VNAV and immediately activate the approach VNAV.
For the transition to be successful the aircraft must be within plus or
minus 100 feet of the pseudo glideslope altitude.

NOTE: It is possible to manually enter an enroute VNAV transition waypoint altitude that is below the FAF altitude. The VNAV leg following this lower altitude will be calculated by the FMS as a climb, which the FMS cannot do. 

The result will be a cancellation of the
VNAV tracking and a default to PITCH.
A failure to monitor this transition can result in CFIT.
The above information is as provided by Universal reduced and corrected. It is not complete and provides a number of misunderstandings which we will attempt to clarify.

There are vertical path and (pseudo) glidepath approches

1) *EOA* approach fix removal will result in an FMS failure to transition to approach scaling.
2) Approach  altitudes within the "gate" can be amended without loss of the transition to terminal scaling.
3) Altitudes can not be input that are below Min. Approach altitudes.

 i.e. an altitude of less than 1700' will not be accepted at MIDPA on the Downsview approach.
If Temp. Comp. is selected no altitude below the 1700'-temperature compensated altitude,  will be accepted.

DAROG similarly will have  a Min. altitude that is acceptable to the FMS.

Many non precision approaches will project a pseudo glideslope at 3 Degrees when this is depicted on the approved approach plate (database). is shown.

This will result in a projected altitude (X ) of 3961 feet asl at DAROG .
The projected altitude  at ADREB will depend on the
altitude at DAROG and the TGT FPA  angle set into the VNAV menu page.
As ATC has requested us to cross DAROG at 3000' ,  we have input this, and the result is a revised projected X altitude of 5589' at ADREB.

as shown.

Inputting a revised altitude at the  "arrival" DAROG will automatically amend the altitude at the "approach" DAROG  inside  the approach gate (*RNV 15 *)in order to preclude...

"a cancellation of the
VNAV tracking and the  default to PITCH."


The 3 degree "pseudo glide path" has now been amended downward and no longer exists.   The FMS handles the vertical aspect as it normally would. The pilot flies a vertical path approach.

IF the aircraft is in VNAV it will remain in VNAV and descend in accordance with the altitudes in the FPL.

Generally in accordance with ATC requests the MIDPA altitude of 2000" would have been entered, but any altitide could be used down to 1700'.
This will result in a varying decent profile and vs speed adjustment requirements at each fix.
The descent angle will be less than 3 deg. and the VASI will be red on red at minimums.

Once the aircraft has passed the approach gate (*RNV 15 * )
the "alt capture" programming is amended . 
A missed approach altitude above the aircraft current altitude may be selected without defaulting the VNAV to PITCH.
There are 2 methods of activating and flying the constant rate, pseudo glidepath approach.
1) Activating the approach outside the "gate".
This projects the approach track and the glidepath beyond the gate fix.
2) Flying through the gate fix(* xx *) at an altitude below the gate fix altitude . This automatically activates the approach and the glidepath.
In each case  VNAV  must be selected for descent prior to glidepath intercept.

With the aircraft  is  in ALT mode , glidepath capture and aircraft handling will be similar to that seen on an ILS.  ALT is removed, VNAV moves up to the active position and crews can select the  missed approach alt.
Once the aircraft has passed the approach gate.

236 g
There are some 5 reasons why this VNAV fails and or defaults to Pitch.

1) The aircraft is in an FMS generated vertical mode when passing through the "approach gate" and the deviation to the new vertical path exceeds 100'.
2) The aircraft is in a vertical mode at the "gate" and VNAV is armed. ??
3) The aircraft is in enroute VNAV with a high descent rate (<1500 fpm),  transitions to approach VNAV and is unable to adjust with less that a 100" deviation.
4) The crew failed to enter DAROG prior to the gate fix. This programing ensures that the FMS program sequence  sees a 3000' requirement before the 3961' delivered at the gate passage . The FMS understands the crew intent,  the 3961 is therefore sandwiched and masked. ???
Note: The aircraft should be in ALT mode at the "gate" in order to avoid any of the above.
5) The Crew selects a MA altitude above current altitude prior to the approach gate while in an FMS vertical mode.

In the event of pitch mode.

PNF must be alert and monitor for this mode and be prepared to reset.
Dependant on co. SOP, and situation this may involve.
1) VTO enter, enter and  Vnav select
2) press Alt.  and reselect VNAV or go to MA
3) continue to  MDA  with no VNAV.

Caution undetected pitch mode can result in CFIT


When approach active and sequenced past the FAF, the FMS will present a MISSD APPR line select key at (R3). ------

when pressed------

 see ----EOA removed(L3) and ARM APPR(R3) is now available

The FMS will continue to navigate the aircraft to the MAP and, when crossing that point, the FMS will enter the missed approach segment. 
Note:  RW11L * is a fly-over waypoint.

The ∗EOA∗  acts as a GAP and prevents sequencing. the FMS will now connect to the flightplan and sequence to the first navigation leg of the missed approach segment.
The ∗EOA∗ will not be removed from the flightplan, only from the NAV page. This will insure the integrity of the approach is maintained to ensure the approach is available if needed again.

The missed approach line select key can be remotely pressed through the go-around system of the aircraft flight director.

This function only becomes available upon crossing the FAF, on an active FMS approach,  

MISSD APPR terminates vertical guidance and returns the FMS to terminal T (L5) phase of flight .
The aircraft pitch up, wings level command will come from the aircraft flight director. 

 Flight director NAV mode must be reselected.


Upon touchdown, the LANDING summary page will be displayed.
Press the Next key and see---

From the LANDING page only the MSG and TUNE pages can be accessed. 

Once any another function is selected, the LANDING pages are no longer available.

IRS?? and page
Press the ON/OFF/DIM key. In the overlay, press the OFF line select key, the overlay then presents CONFIRM OFF or SELECT STBY ??  then select the CONFIRM OFF line select key. The FMS will shut down. It is strongly recommended that the FMS be shut down by the normal shutdown method before removing power from the FMS by turning off the avionics master switch or the aircraft's batteries. Failing to do so will place the FMS in a power failure mode. See ---
Get photo

Press the ON/OFF/ key and line select key 5R will present OFF/STBY. Select this line select key and CONFIRM STBY will appear adjacent to line select key [5R].

Using the ON/OFF?  will reactivate the FMS and, following the power on self test a STANDBY RESUME page will appear.

When activated, the FMS will hold flight plan and fuel inputs for a set  time (of  0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours see configuration module set-up).
The FMS will power down, but the flightplan and fuel inputs are saved.
Confirm the flightplan waypoints and confirm the fuel on board
After electrical power is restored following a power failure see--

POWER FAILURE FROM 7 sec. to 7 min. - - -
if < 7 sec.  Not seen 
if > 7 min requires full initialization.

1. Press the N key to access NAV page 2. Check the FMS position and navigation sensors.
2. If the position is reasonable and GPS is in NAV, check NAV page 1 or 2 to verify correct NAV leg.
3. Monitor GPS position until aircraft is back on track and the WIND on the NAV page stabilizes.

NOTE: Loss of power will cause the FMS screen to go full bright when power is restored.

DATA 1/4 is the database menu page. And is presented when the DATA function key is first pressed. link to data pages review

It allows access to the navigation database, pilot database, company database, and disk or DTU operations.
UNILINK, line select key will be displayed at R3 on aircraft that have the options 
The MAINT line select key is a maintenance function and allows crews to interrogate the contents of the navigation database, press the NAV DATA line select key.

Other options include PERF, AFIS, MFD DISP, CABIN DISP and are not presented on the 400 at this time.

WAYPOINT AND TURN TYPES ref page 71  to overfly a waypoint

1) Select and Highlight the fix desired to flyover
2) see window as opposite
3) Select OVERFLY (R4) see screen change  - -No overfly and  - -EPSUM --- EPSUM*
Select and Highlight the fix and press BACK- -to undo press BACK again

PHASE OF FLIGHT and scaling.
Enroute, Terminal, and Approach are the three phases or modes of flight programmed into the FMS. The terminal phase of flight will automatically be set upon completing initialization and is the airspace within 30nm of the departure airport. The 30nm is the radius of a circle measured from the departure airport’s ARP. Upon crossing this circle the FMS will automatically change to the
enroute phase of flight.
When approaching the arrival airport, how the FMS operates depends upon whether an FMS flyable approach is entered into the flightplan. With an approach in the flightplan, the FMS will offer an ARM APPR (arm approach) line select key. If selected, as part of arming the approach, the FMS will set the CDI scale to terminal. If not selected, at 30nm, which is the beginning of standard terminal airspace, the FMS will automatically set the CDI to terminal and arm the approach. With no FMS approach in the flightplan, flight mode terminal will automatically occur at 30nm with no manual method of changing it prior to 30nm. The reference location for the 30nm or 50nm regarding change of flight phase is the ARP; for auto approach arming, the reference point is the end of approach point.


The database contains latitude and longitude identified waypoints for many areas of the
world. I.e. North Atlantic Track s(NAT)
The flightplan will be displayed in a seven character alphanumeric format as shown.
Waypoints can be entered in the flightplan in this format or the ARINC format.

After entering

press the Enter key
And see.

The lat/long will be displayed in degrees, minutes, and hundredths of
A pilot defined waypoint can be created using one of three techniques.


By lat/ long.  I.e. 54.00.00'N 027:00.00'W is entered using either:
A) the ARINC naming convention, as 5427N,
B) enter the waypoint using the format 54N027W.
Enter by first pressing the line select key at the desired location and entering as appropriate and press Enter.

This creates the name of the waypoint

Note Pilot waypoints can be created almost anywhere in a flight plan and are automatically stored in pilot data. They can not be amended if contained in any stored flight plan.
And see

Enter the coordinates in degrees, minutes, and
100ths of minutes (or, with a MENU selection, 1000th  of minutes) and press Enter .
The cursor moves from latitude to longitude. Input the coordinates and press Enter
If the coordinates are acceptable, press
Enter or
ACCEPT WPT line select key.
And see------
The new waypoint entered into the flightplan. The is different to identify it as a pilot created waypoint.

Once the pilot waypoint is created, it can be used and entered using either the ARINC format or the seven character format.
If the naming convention does not provide a name orf the waypoint or the name selected is already in use, create a name up to five characters and place it in the flightplan.
As in ----
Define a pilot waypoint using a radial and distance from a known fix. The known fix
can be either a NAV waypoint or a previously
created pilot waypoint.
i.e  The waypoint LKV50 is defined as 50 nautical miles on the 150-degree radial from the LKV

Since the waypoint name of LKV50 does not exist in  the database, when LKV50 is entered into the flightplan, the DEFINE WPT page is presented. With the cursor as shown-----
input LKV

at the REF WPT line select key, press Enter,
Verify( and see that Page), and
Note the lat and long of LKV are entered at L2

The cursor will move to allow entry of the radial.  Input 1,5,0,0 and enter

NOTE: The radial and DME entries are four character fields requiring the inclusion of a tenth of a degree or mile  respectively.
Pressing the Enter key will move the cursor to the distance line.

Input 5,0,0, and press the Enter Key

the FMS will calculate a Lat/Long. At R2

ACCEPT  WPT  L5 will place the waypoint into the flightplan.
As in---------
 using crossing radials of two fixes. (Seldom used in a GPS based FMS operation.)

The example uses V-222 from the SFL VOR, and  the V-16 into PEQ.
Inputing 22216 will again present the DEFINE WPT page.
And see
Enter SFL and the radial.
Then with the  Enter key
the line select key, L4  move the cursor
to WPT; enter the second fix.

Entering the radial and pressing E will cause the
FMS to calculate the lat/long of the crossing point.
And see ---------

NOTE If the two radials do not intersect, the last waypoint radial will flash.
If the two reference waypoints are more than 200nm from each other, a waypoint will not be calculated.
Accepting the new waypoint will place it in the
Flightplan and in the database. The turn point is now identified and the follow on waypoint can be entered into the flightplan.
Visual waypoints
To create a route using landmarks,

First map out the route of flight and identify the landmarks.
Through visual pilotage, navigate the aircraft towards the waypoint. Enter the name of the waypoint in the flightplan and press Enter .
And see----

Press the lat/long line select key.

Notice that GNSS POS and FMS1 POS lines become bold and selectable.

As the aircraft crosses the landmark for RVRXG, press either GNSS POS or FMS1 POS and the lat/long is entered into the field.

Pressing GNSS POS will use the pure GNSS position. Pressing FMS POS will use the FMS best computed position.
ACCEPT WPT will enter it into the flightplan.

By storing (press MENU and )this flightplan as a pilot route, this flightplan may be flown exactly as it was created.
// 112/2009

If  an emergency requires the aircraft to return to the coast-out point, the FMS procedure to accomplish this is as follows.
The first step is to turn the aircraft 90° to the current course. There may be specific turn directions required, observe regulatory requirements.

Under FPL MENU 2/2 use the INVERT FPL tool to
reverse the flightplan.

This will require a double push on the line select


The flightplan will now show the return routing.
However the
NAV page will still retain the original NAV leg.

A manual leg change will be needed to provide the
new NAV leg. Push the “FR” line select key and---
oceanic return

enter the correct “FR” waypoint.
Complete the NAV leg by entering the correct “TO”
waypoint and press the Enter key.

Selected cross track operations SXTK

Although this represents the correct NAV leg,  is prudent /required until clearance is received to, offset the return course.

to do so
Highlight crosstrack SXTK (L4) and enter the appropriate offset distance.

Use the CMD HDG function and  INTERCEPT to have
the FMS intercept and navigate the  new NAV leg.

The FMS will follow the SXTK offset until the next waypoint in system 802.x

to create a route

AC - Advisory Circular (FAA)
ADC - Air Data Computer, provides True Air Speed (TAS) and altitude. Below 18,000 ft. the
altitude has to be baro-corrected (by the pilot) by adjusting for the local barometric pressure
reading. Above 18,000 ft., a pressure of 29.92 in. of mercury is utilized. - see also DADC.
Additional secondary factor Ð Calibration factors designed to compensate for the difference in
propagation characteristics between land and sea.
ADS Ð Air Data Sensor.
ADF - Automatic Direction Finder
ADI - Attitude Display Indicator
AFCS - Automatic Flight Control System
AFIS Ð Airborne Flight Information Systems.
AGL - Above Ground Level
AHRS Ð Attitude Heading Reference System.
Air data system Ð A sophisticated system for measuring air temperature, pitot pressure, and static
pressure. Used to obtain highly accurate TAS. Mach, altitude, and static air temperature. Also
called an ŮAir Data ComputerÓ. See also ADC.
ALS - Approach Light System
ALT - Altitude, expressed in feet. Supplied to the UNS-1 by the air data computer. Altitude may
also be input manually, which will override sensor supplied altitude.
ALTERR - Altitude Error displayed when the VNAV mode is in use. The number displayed is the
difference, in feet, between the actual aircraft altitude and VNAV computed on-glideslope altitude
for that point.
ANP Ð Actual Navigation Performance: The quality of navigation measured by the radius of the
circle of position in hundredths of a nautical mile with a probability of 95%.
ANT Ð Antenna
APPR Ð Approach.
Area Navigation Ð Navigation along random routes within the area of coverage of referenced
facilities, or within the limits of self-contained area navigational aids, precluding the need to overfly
specific navigational facilities.
ARINC Ð Data interface format (e.g., ARINC 429); ARINC is an abbreviation for "Aeronautical
Radio, Inc."
ARPT Ð Airport.
ARTU Ð ARINC Radio Tune Unit.
ASCB Ð Aeronautical Standard Communication Bus
ASR Ð Airport Surveillance Radar
ASU Ð Antenna Switching Unit.
ATC Ð Air Traffic Control
Baseline Ð The imaginary great circle line connecting a Loran C master station with a secondary
Baseline extension Ð The extension of the baseline beyond the Loran-C master or secondary
BCD - Binary Coded Decimal (number representation)
BCP - Best Computed Position; as determined by Universal's UNS-1. A typically installed fully
integrated UNS-1 processes range information from the DME, true air speed from the Air Data
Computer, velocity data from an inertial reference sensor, position data from the GPS or Loran C,
and aircraft heading in order to derive the one best computed position and velocity as a weighted
average of the various sensor inputs.
BNR - Binary (number representation)
BRG - The bearing from the aircraft's present position to the NDB. This is selectable in true or
CADC - Central Air Data Computer
CAS - Calibrated Air Speed
Checksum - A process (transparent to the user) which generates, and checks, special control
characters used in validating that data is properly transferred/stored between (computer)
CPU - A computer's Central Processing Unit.
CRT - Cathode Ray Tube
DA - Decision Altitude, measured above MSL
DADC - Digital Air Data Computer - see also ADC.
DATE - Date in Day-Month-Year format; corresponds to Greenwich, England.
DEXP - Date of Expiration of stored navaid database.
DF - Direction Finder
DH - Decision Height, measured AGL
DIFF - The difference between the UNS-1 best computed position and the selected sensor's
position. Difference is shown in degrees, minutes and tenths of arc minutes latitude and
DIS - The Great Circle Distance, in nautical miles, between the aircraft's present position and the
TO waypoint.
DIST - The received DME distance in nm from the VOR to the aircraft's present position.
DME - (Distance Measuring Equipment); inexpensive and very accurate short distance navigation
system (e.g., Collins' DME-42, Bendix's DME-441) compatible with TACAN.
dP - Pressure Differential (e.g., cabin to outside).
DR - Dead Reckoning
DR - Status indicating that insufficient signals are being received to determine present position
and the FMS is in the dead reckoning mode.
DRIFT - Drift angle in degrees left (L) or right (R) of the aircraft heading (caused by wind).
DTO - Direct-To; Direct route or course
DTU - Data Transfer Unit
DZUS-mounted Ð Aviation standard method of securing installed avionics
EAS - Equivalent Air Speed
EFIS - Electronic Flight Instrument Systems
EMI - Electromagnetic Interference
EOA - End Of Approach
ESAD - Equivalent Still Air Distance, distance aircraft has flown through air mass eliminating the
effect of wind. This is used extensively by airlines flying fixed routes for comparing operational
ETA - Estimated Time of Arrival at the destination. This is based upon the present time and the
current ground speed over the flight planned route.
ETE - Estimated Time Enroute, in hours and minutes, to the destination, this is equal to the
distance to go divided by the groundspeed.
Ethernet Ð A digital communication system allowing for communication between two electronic
FAF - Final Approach Fix
FBW - Fly-By-Wire
FDE Ð Fault Detection and Exclusion: Used by the GPS receiver to identify and remove from the
position calculation faulty satellites
FGS - Flight Guidance System
Flight Plan - A one-time collection of waypoints, headings and the information valid for only that
one flight. This is contrasted to a "Route" which is the normal and usual route taken between two
points. The route is stored in the UNS-1's memory and is recalled to become the Flight Plan for
the trip to be flown. During a flight, a Flight Plan may well be altered (e.g., a VOR is added, an
intersection is deleted, etc.) without affecting the original data in route storage. As these changes
are normally temporary and valid for that flight, the Flight Plan with the changes will not be stored
at the completion of the flight. A flight plan may consist of one or more routes selected from the
route "catalog".
Flash RAM Ð A high speed electronic chip used to store digital information
FMC Ð Flight Management Computer
FMS - Flight Management System
FPA - Flight Path Angle (glideslope) in degrees required for the approach segment between the
FR and TO waypoints (current leg)
FPL - Flight Plan
FREQ - Frequency
G/S - Glide Slope; associated with Instrument Landing System (ILS)
GLONASS Ð Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System: A satellite based positioning system
currently managed by Russia
GLS - Global Positioning Landing System, GPS precision approach
GMT - Greenwich Mean Time; time in Greenwich, England expressed in hours and minutes in a
24-hour format.
GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System: An umbrella term used to encompass all satellite
based positioning systems
GPS - Global Positioning System (satellite navigation)
GPWS - Ground Proximity Warning System
GS - Ground Speed; distance traveled divided by flight time. Express in nautical miles per hour
HDG - Heading being used by the navigation computer.
HDG IN - The heading received by the navigation computer from the available sources. Input may
be magnetic or true.
HF - High Frequency (3-30 MHz).
HIL  Horizontal Integrity Limit
HSI - Horizontal Situation Indicator
HUD - Heads-Up Display
IAF - Initial Approach Fix.
IAS - Indicated Air Speed [pitot (impact) pressure minus atmospheric (static) pressure] in knots.
IAS is supplied to the UNS-1 system by the air data computer.
ICAO - International Civil Aviation Organization
IFR - Instrument Flight Rules
ILS - Instrument Landing System
IM - ILS Inner Marker
INS - Inertial Navigation System
INT - Intersection
IP - Initial Point
IRS - Inertial Reference System, the IRS systems used with the UNS-1 are designed around
either conventional or the latest technology ring-laser gyroscopes. Sensors utilizing conventional
gyros depend on accelerometers, mounted on a gyro-stabilized platform, so that the aircraft's
movement on all three axes (pitch, roll, yaw) can be sensed. The laser-reference gyros, on the
other hand, use the difference in resonant frequency between light beams traveling in opposite
directions to sense the rotation on each aircraft's axis. These angular rate changes combine with
accelerometer measurements on each of those axes to determine the aircraft's orientation in
space and to track its position. Whichever method is used, conventional or laser, the longitude
position in the earth's coordinate system is determined. Examples of inertial sensors and
navigation systems include Honeywell Laseref IRS, Lasernav Sensor, Delco Carousel VI, and
LITTON LTN-72, 72R, 72RL, 90, 91.
ISA - International Standard Air (temperature)
ISS - Inertial Sensor System; see IRS.
Jeppesen - Manufacturer of navigation aid/data databases.
Kalman Filter - A (computer) processing technique which integrate several similar signals and
statistically determines their proper mix to create a composite, best fit, single output.
LDA - Localizer-type Directional Aid
LF - Low Frequency
LFR - Low Frequency Radio Range
LMM - (Compass) Locator at Middle Marker
LOA - Loran C Operating Area
LOA INSIDE - Status indicating that the aircraft's present position is inside a define LOA. This
status will be reported even if no stations are being received.
LOA OUTSIDE - Status indicating that the aircraft's present position is outside a defined Loran
Operating Area.
LOC - ILS Localizer.
LOM - (Compass) Locator at Outer Marker
Loran C Ð (LCS) Long Range Navigation; navigation systems presently limited to areas of the
Northern Hemisphere. Long and short-term accuracy with periodic variation affecting short-term
position sensing.
LPV Ð Localizer Precision with Electronic Vertical Guidance
LRU - Line Replaceable Unit
LSB - Least Significant Bit.
M - Mach number, supplied to the UNS-1 by the air data computer.
MAA - Maximum Authorized (IFR) Altitude
MACH - Speed of sound
MAP - Missed Approach Point
MCA - Minimum Crossing Altitude, measured above MSL
MDA - Minimum Descent Altitude, measured above MSL
MEA - Minimum Enroute (IFR) Altitude, measured above MSL
Megabyte - One million bytes where each byte typically represents one character or symbol in
computer storage. A byte is usually composed of eight bits.
MFD - Multi-Function Display
MM - ILS Middle Marker
MNPS Ð Minimum Navigation Performance Specification
MOCA - Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude, measured above MS
MRA - Minimum Reception Altitude, measured above MSL
MSL - Mean Sea Level
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failure; used to measure component reliability, expressed in hours
of operation.
NAT-MNPS - North Atlantic - Minimum Navigation Performance Specification
Navaid - Navigation aid.
NCU - Navigation Computer Unit
NDB - Non-Directional Beacon
NM - Nautical Miles designator
NMS - Navigation Management Systems
NONCERT - Status indicating that the LCS is navigating outside the Loran Operating Area (LOA)
and the navigation computer is not utilizing LCS for position determination.
NRS Navigation Reference system The FAA High Altitude Airspace Redesign (AC 90-99) uses the Navigation Reference System (NRS) of waypoints enabling capable aircraft to fly point-to-point navigation or RNAV. The waypoints defined under the Navigation Reference System are included in the SCN 80X navigation databases. they are a system of waypoints every 30 min of latitude and 2 deg of longitude and are coded to indicate FIR, Center, lat and long. ie KD48U or KA42W.
Non-Volatile RAM; independently powered protected computer memory, see also RAM
NX - The next waypoint on the flight plan
OM - (ILS) Outer Marker
PAR - Precision Approach Radar
PC - Personal Computer
PFD - Primary Flight Display
PI - Point of Impact.
PIP - Pre-Initial Point
POS Ð (a) The aircraft's latitude/longitude coordinates as determined by the navigation computer
from all available sources. The coordinates displayed represent the UNS-1Õs best computed
position. (b) The aircraft's latitude/longitude coordinates at touchdown or the moment the HOLD
key was depressed.
POST Ð Power On Self Test
PP - Present Position
Q - Quality Factor (Q); a measure of a system's [probable error in tenths of a nm. Based on a
95% probability, a Q of 3 would represent a maximum position error of 0.3nm.
RAIM Ð Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RNAV - Area Navigation or Random Area Navigation
R/T - Receiver/Transmitter
RADIAL - The radial from the VOR to the aircraft's position
RAM - Computer Random Access Memory; each location (e.g., byte) is directly and individually
RBN - Radio Beacon
RCLM - Runway Centerline Marking.
RCS - Roll Command Steering.
RF - Radio Frequency
RFI - Radio Frequency Interference
RGBS Format Ð Red Green Blue Sync format
RNP Ð Required Navigation Performance: The standard by which ANP must comply
Route - A progression of waypoints, headings, intersections, etc. that are normal and usual in
completing a flight between two points. A route is stored in the UNS-1's memory for recall during
specific flights at which time one or more routes will be recalled and become the foundation for
that flight's Flight Plan (see also "Flight Plan"). Changes to a Flight Plan have no affect on the
stored routes.
RP - Release Point
RR - Low or Medium Frequency Radio Range Station
RRS - Radio Reference Sensor, provides DME, DME/VOR, and TACAN navigation capabilities to
the UNS-1
RTU Ð Radio Tune Unit
RVR - Runway Visual Range; as measured in the touchdown zone area
SAT - Static Air Temperature. Supplied to the UNS-1 by the air data computer
SCAT 1 - Special Category 1: Refers to a category of GLS approach
SID - Standard Instrument Departure
SMC - Special Missions Computer, Universal's Special Missions Navigation and Flight
Management System
SSU - Signal Switching Unit; digital to analog signal converter for interfacing the UNS-1 digital
output to conventional analog Flight Guidance Systems.
STAR - Standard Terminal Arrival Route
STC - Supplemental Type Certificate - associated with FAA approvals; issued to applicants
installing appliances on aircraft
TACAN - Tactical Air Navigation - military navigation air providing range and bearing operating in
the ultra-high frequency range
TAS - True Air Speed (Indicated Air Speed [IAS] corrected for temperature and altitude). Supplied
to the UNS-1 by the Air Data Computer (ADC)
TAWS Ð Terrain Avoidance Warning System
TC - Type Certificate - associated with FAA aprovals; issued to manufacturers of aircraft
TCA - Terminal Control Area
TCAS Ð Traffic Collision Avoidance System
TSO - Technical Standard Order; FAA certification standard
TVOR - Very High Frequency (Terminal) Omnidirectional Range station. - see also VOR.
UNC-LCS - Universal's Loran C sensor system, it uses the master station with all other available
slave stations in up to 3 chains. It works with all present and future chains.
UTC Ð Universal Time Coordinated: Base on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
V IN - The N-S/E-W velocity components being received by the navigation computer from the IRS
VAR - Variation; e.g., magnetic variation as displayed on a CDU page
VEL - Movement of the UNS-1 best computed position broken into N-S/E-W velocity components.
VFR - Visual Flight Rules
VHF - Very High Frequency (30-300 MHz).
VIR-32 - VHF Instrument Receiver used for VOR navigation; i.e., Collins' VIR-32.
VNAV - Vertical Navigation
VOR - Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range station. Provides azimuth referenced to
magnetic north from a fixed location.
VORTAC - Combined/collocated civil and military navigation system (VOR and TACAN)
VSR - Vertical Speed Required
Waypoint - A latitude and longitude coordinate associated with references of interest such as
airports, navaid transmitters/markers, intersections, and other points.
WGS-84 Ð World Geodetic System of 1984: An agreed upon geometry of the world by which
latitude longitude coordinates are computed
WIND - The wind direction (true) and speed in knots
WP or WPT - Waypoint
XTK Ð Crosstrack, lateral distance in NM left (L) or right (R) of the extended course centerline
between the FR and TO waypoints
XWIND - The current crosswind component direction (L or R) and velocity in knots

BRG Bearing  it is the direction of waypoint from the aircraft usually measured in magnetic degrees, but could be provided in true degrees.
DA Drift Angle  it is the effect of wind on the aircraft heading resulting in the track of the aircraft.
DIS Distance  it is the measured length between two navigational points or the aircraft and a waypoint.
DSRTK Desired Track  it is the preferred path over the ground.
GS Ground Speed  it is the speed of the aircraft relative to the ground.
HDG Heading  it is the direction of the aircraft relative to either magnetic or true North.
POS Position  it is the current location of the aircraft usually identified by a latitude and longitude or radio navigational aid.
TAS True Air Speed  it is the speed of the aircraft relative to the air mass with in which itÕs flying.
TK Track  it is the actual path of the aircraft over the ground.
TKE Track Error  it is angle between the desired track and the actual track of the aircraft.
VAR Variation  it is the angular measurement between magnetic and true North.
WPT Waypoint  A navigational point usually identified by a latitude and longitude or radio navigational aid, but with a modern FMS, could be a condition.
XTK Crosstrack  The distance of the aircraft from the desired track usually measured in nautical miles.

ARINC 424 provides waypoint naming conventions that are used by the database supplier in the database. Listed below are the most common ones that may be encountered when accessing the navigation database.
D235H DME waypoint on the 235Ń radial at 8nm (H is 8th letter of the alphabet)
XYZ29 'x' point on enroute chart, 29nm from the XYZ VOR
12ABC 'x' point on enroute chart, 112nm from ABC VOR
FF26 Final Approach Fix for Runway 26
OM26 Outer Marker for Runway 26
CF26 Final Approach Capture Fix for Runway 26 (usually located on final approach
course outside of FAF)
RW26 Threshold coordinates for Runway 26
MA26 Missed Approach point for Runway 26
Latitude/Longitude Named Waypoints (Oceanic) listed in Navigation database. Not all Latitude/Longitude waypoints are listed in the NAV database. When entering a waypoint name not covered in the NAV database a DEFINE WAYPOINT page will appear.
                                               ARINC 424 Format                              SCN 802 and 803
                                               5540N                                                  55N040W
                                               50N30                                                  50N130W
                                               5705E                                                   57N005E
                                               48E70                                                   48N170E
                                               5275W                                                 52S075W
                                               6030S                                                   60S030E
                                               02S70 S                                                02S170E
NOTE: The Navigational Database contains latitude longitude waypoints in those areas where air navigation is probable. The Navigational Database contains many of the above examples, but some of the examples lie within areas of the world where there is little air navigation. In those areas where latitude longitude named waypoints do not produce a Navigational Database waypoint; a Pilot waypoint must be created.

FMS DISPLAYED MESSAGES and Annunciators  Failures??  ref pages 173-194 FMS Manual
removed  non d8400 info. , and 803 (ILS),  IRS, LCS loran, Collins proline, MMMSs?, Primus, performance and overspeed info, Special mission, SCAT1, Tactical, waas,
This section contains the FMS system messages, including any action(s) that may be necessary by the crew to correct the abnormality. A box around the procedures following the message definition indicates crew action. In addition to the message annunciator, there are six other annunciators that may be required and are mounted on the instrument panel or are displayed through the EFIS. They are added to this section. ref page 226(2007) shown in bold.
Pilot action info has been added where available  ref page 227 (20070
If the Position Uncertain message is active, “POS” will be displayed on the far left side of the top line on the CDU display. When a new system message becomes active, “MSG” will appear on the far right side of the top line on the CDU display. Pressing the MSG key will cause the MESSAGE page to be displayed showing the active messages. The current messages (those messages generated since the page was last accessed) will be displayed at the top of the list. After the messages are viewed,  selecting the RETURN option on the MESSAGE page or by pressing either the MSG or BACK keys.
System messages are presented in alphabetical order. Messages specifying the sensor number (GPS1, IRS2 and LCS2) are listed below with the number symbol (#) in place of the sensor number. However, the sensor number is used in the actual message. All messages are suppressed for the first thirty seconds after takeoff in order to minimize distractions to the pilot.

A/D CODE # - The A/D (Analog/Digital Board) self test failed. “#” is the error code from 1 to 9. This message will only come on following system initialization. Heading and fuel flow inputs may be affected and should be checked if the system must be used. Codes are as follows:
1 - A/D Program Checksum Fail
2 - +15 VDC Self test Fail
3 - -15 VDC Self test Fail
9 - No Communication between A/D board and FMS
A/D HEADING FAIL – The present system heading source, A/D (synchro analog-to-digital),  has failed. This message will be removed after it is displayed. Unless a NO HEADING message is also active, the system will have automatically selected another valid heading source. No action is necessary if another valid heading was selected. A check should be made on the appropriate DATA page to ensure that the heading source selected is the one desired and the heading is correct. This message is suppressed while the aircraft is on the ground.
1. Check heading source on Data 4/4.
2. Place cursor over the HDG field.
3. Press the LIST key to access a display of alternate heading sources.
4. Select an alternate heading source.
5. A manual heading can be entered at the HDG field on DATA page 4/4. but once entered, all new heading changes will have to be entered manually as well.
ABEAM WAYPOINT ALERT – This message is displayed 15 seconds prior to the sequencing time for an Abeam intersection
ADC ALT REQD FOR APRCH – An approach has been attempted, but XFILL or MAN altitude is being used by the system.
ADC ALT REQD FOR VNAV – A VNAV problem has been entered, but XFILL or MAN altitude is being used by the system.
ADC INPUT FAIL – An Air Data Computer (ADC) failure is detected.
Manual entries of TAS and altitude may be made on ADC 1/1.
1. Check circuit breaker for ADC or ACU if installed.
2. Press the DATA key until DATA 2/4 is accessed.
3. Press the line select key at ADC to access ADC 1/1.
4. At the TAS field, enter current true airspeed. A manual TAS overrides any ADC input.
5. At the BARO ALT field enter the current BARO altitude.
6. TAS and Altitude inputs must be updated as required.
If a second FMS is installed air data may be crossfilled from the other system.
NOTE: Without valid air data inputs to the FMS, VNAV is not available and any leg type terminators requiring altitudes will not be sequenced.
AFIS ARINC FAILURE – The FMS has determined that a failure is present on the AFIS ARINC bus.
AFIS CONFIG INVALID – The AFIS DMU has invalid configuration data. This will disable the air/ground data link. This message will remain on the MSG page until the condition clears.
AFIS DOWNLINK FAIL – The AFIS DMU has determined that a downlink communication has failed. The last request should be repeated.
AFIS FPL RCVD – Either an uplinked FPL from the Global Data Center or a disk FPL from the AFIS DTU has been received and processed.
AFIS NO COMM – The AFIS DMU has failed to establish contact with the ground station. The last request should be repeated. This message will remain on the MSG page until the condition clears.
AFIS UPLINK FAIL – The AFIS DMU has determined that an uplink communication has failed. The last requested information will probably not be received.
AFIS VHF LINK DISABLED – The AFIS DMU has determined that the VHF link is disabled. This may result when (in a shared antenna system) the VHF antenna is being used by the aircraft voice communication system. It may also occur when all in-range VHF ground networks have been disabled.
AFIS VHF MODEM FAILURE – The AFIS DMU has determined that the VHF Modem unit within the AFIS is not operational. This message will remain on the MSG page until the condition clears.
AHRS # HEADING FAIL – The AHRS heading has failed while in use as the FMS heading source. This message is suppressed while the aircraft is on the ground.
1. Press the DATA key to access Data 4/4.
2. Place cursor over the HDG field.
3. Press the LIST key to access a display of alternate heading sources.
4. Select an alternate heading source.
A manual heading may also be entered, but heading updates must be made each time the aircraft changes heading. (See DATA page section) Record information from heading source page for maintenance.
AHRS # INPUT FAIL – The AHRS input has failed or its status word indicates failure.
AIRPORT DATABASE FAIL – A problem has been found in the airport section of the navigation database. Verify airport coordinates of interest. There is a high probability that the system will fail the initial self-tests the next time it is turned on. After landing and shutdown, turn the system off and then on again in order to troubleshoot.
1. Reload the navigation database.
AIRWAY DATABASE FAIL – A problem has been detected in the Airways database.
1. Reload the navigation database.
ALIGN PT DATABASE FAIL – A problem has been detected in the Align Points database.
1. Reload pilot database disk.
ALT INVALID FOR VNAV – A VNAV problem is defined, but (1) only pressure altitude is available and the aircraft is below 18,000 feet, or (2) altitude has failed.
ALT INVALID – The altitude portion of the Air Data Computer is not usable. A manual entry of altitude may be made on the ADC Status page.
1. Press the DATA key until DATA 2/4 is accessed.
2. Press the line select key at ADC to access ADC 1/1.
3. At the BARO ALT field, enter the current BARO altitude. VNAV NOT AVAILABLE
ANALOG ATTITUDE FAIL – Displayed if analog inputs are being used for Doppler NAV and those inputs go invalid for more than 5 seconds. Message remains while inputs are invalid.
ANALOG BOARD FAIL – A failure is detected on the Analog Board. The outputs to the NAV may be affected, and depending upon installation, heading and fuel flow in some systems may also be affected. Verify on the DATA pages that the heading, TAS, and altitude inputs are reasonable.
1. Press the DATA key to access DATA 2/4.
2. Press ADC prompt to access ADC page and verify TAS and altitude.
3. Press DATA key to access DATA 4/4.
4. Verify HDG.
5. If NAV is analog type, do not use for navigation display.
ANALOG INST FAIL – The Analog Waypoint Bearing or Desired Track self test has failed or the instrument reference is missing.
1. Check 26 VAC circuit breakers for FMC instrument reference input.
APPR FACILITY INVALID – Presented with no message annunciator if the approach facility becomes invalid during an approach.
APPROACH DATABASE FAIL – A problem has been detected in the approach database.
1. Reload navigation database.
APPROACH IN USE – The currently accessed approach is in use in the flight plan and cannot be modified or deleted.
ARINC # FAIL – ARINC #1 or 2 board failure . This message will only occur following the self test on system initialization. Communication with other onboard systems may be affected.
ARPT NAME DATABASE FAIL –  airport geographical names database fail. Access to some airport names will be prevented.
1. Reload navigation database.
ASCB FAIL – ASCB board failure.   Message will remain  until the condition clears.
ASCB TX INOPERATIVE – The ASCB board will not transmit. Message will clear when acknowledged or when condition clears.
ASCB LEFT(or) RIGHT BUS FAIL –  bus has failed. FMS operation may be degraded. Message will clear when acknowledged or when condition clears.
AUXILIARY BOARD FAIL –  failed self test.
BACKUP DATABASE FAIL –  navaid database  failed.
BARO ALT NOT AVAILABLE – Barometric altitude not available (from ADC). Message will clear after acknowledgement, or when condition clears.
CDU DATA BUS FAIL – Communication between the CDU and the NCU has failed.
If FMS does not recover automatically, cycle power by turning the unit off . Document for maintenance whether FMS information to flight instruments remained or was lost as indicated by flags on the NAV instruments. Document whether FMS recovered automatically or recycling power was required.
CLOCK TIMER FAIL – self test fail of unit on cpu
COMP ARPTS DATABASE FAIL – Some part of company airport database - -has failed.
CONFIG MODULE FAILED – Communication with or data in module has failed. Attenpt to store config. to determine cause.
CONFIG UPDATE REQUIRED – config module or data has failed  - -FMS ready (config'ed) for intallation
CROSSFILL FAIL: BAD DATA – A FPL crossfill task failure due internal com. error.
CROSSFILL FAIL: BUS – A crossfill task failure due bus time out or Arinc  board fail.
CROSSFILL FAIL: FPL CHGD – A crossfill task failure due edit in other FMS during task.
CSDB SELFTEST FAIL – --  as is,    and VOR, DME, OR RTU function may be disabled.
CURRENT LEG EXTENDED – Presented  when AC flies past terminator of current leg with no next leg defined. FROM dist will increase.
DATABASE CORRECTING – A minor failure has been detected in the database and an error correcting process is being run. Access to the database is restricted until the correction process has been completed and the database tests good.
DATABASE EXPIRED – The current date is past the NAV Database Expiration Date.
1. Load current navigation database.
DATABASE FAIL – A part or all of the navigation database has failed.
1. Reload navigation database.
DATABASE FULL – The particular pilot database is full.
DATABASE VAX LOADED – The database was loaded from a VAX host computer instead of a DDU.
DEAD RECKONING MODE – (DR) TAS and Heading are the only sensors being used for navigation
DEMONSTRATION MODE – The aircraft identification is configured as “DEMO” and sensor data is simulated internally.
1. Do not use this FMS for navigation.
DISCRETE I/O FAIL – Self test of the discrete I/O has failed.
DISK FORMAT FAILURE – An attempt to format a disk was unsuccessful. Message displayed when not in the disk submenu.
DISK FULL – REPLACE IT – The disk in the DTU has become full while Data Recording was active and a Disk function page was not displayed. If a Disk page was displayed when the disk became full, then the message is displayed on a Disk Error page.
DISK WRITE FAILURE – An attempt to write to a disk in the DTU was unsuccessful. This message will only be displayed when not in the disk submenu.
DME TUNE FAIL – An ARINC 709 series DME has not tuned to the pilot requested frequency. The message is cleared when the radio successfully tunes.
DR – Will illuminate if the FMS is not receiving NAV sensor input from any other source and the FMS is determining its position solely from dead reckoning (DR).
1. Reload navigation database.
FMC BATTERY LOW – Self test has detected that the FMC battery is low. Navigation is still allowable; however, at shutdown the position, date and time may be lost.
1. Return the FMS to Universal Avionics for repair.
FMC DATALINK QUEUE FULL – as is , and subsequent FMC transmission attempts may result in the loss of the datalink message.
FMS APPR – Will be illuminated during the time the FMS is approach active.
– GLS and FMS deviations differ more than one dot (10 degrees).
FMS-BC DIFFERENCE WARN – The FMS is in approach mode on a backcourse type approach and the track angle error is less than 3 degrees, crosstrack error is less than 0.2nm and the localizer deviation is greater than 0.039 DDM (1/2 dot).
FMS DIFFERENCE > xxNM – in a dual installation - -The sensor “watchdog” has sensed that the latitude/longitude positions of the two systems  differ from each other by an amount that warrants pilot attention. “xx” can be 6, 12, 18 or 24NM. As both FMS’s normally utilize the same sensors, this should not happen. If it does;
1. Check the NAV pages on each FMS and follow the system displaying the smallest DIFFS between FMS and sensor latitude/longitude positions.
2. If the FMS’s are utilizing different sensor inputs, refer to the “NAV SENSOR ACCURACY MESSAGES” section of this manual.
FMS-FLOC DIFF WARN – During an FMS-LOC approach, the aircraft is inbound on the same desired track as the ILS, and FMS deviation is less than 0.2nm while ILS localizer deviation is greater than ½ dot.
1. Select FHDG mode and manually steer the aircraft to intercept the ILS localizer.
FMS HDG – Will be illuminated during the time the FMS is in command or procedural heading mode.
– A disallowed mode key was pressed while on the Disk Menu page when it was accessed from the Initialization page.
FMS NETWORK COMM FAIL – Indicates the FMS’s internally programmed Ethernet address has failed. The FMS will operate normally but cannot communicate with the DTU or other network LRUs.
FMS PART NUMBER MISMATCH – The FMS installed has a different part number than the configuration stored. Verify installation is correct.
FPL CAPACITY EXCEEDED – The pilot attempted to enter more than 98 waypoints in a flight plan.
FPL DISK MINOR ERROR – When a flight plan disk is loaded, the number of records found on the disk do not match the number of records in the header file on the disk. The flight plan should be completely reviewed for accuracy.
FUELFLOW FAIL – A fuel flow failure is detected. Manual fuel flow entries may be made. May be seen after engine shutdown.
1. Press the FUEL key until the FUEL FLOW page is accessed.
2. Check the fuel flow displays for reasonableness. ---or Back and Enter
3. Enter manual fuel flows if necessary.
4. Update the fuel used values manually if required.
FUEL FLOW SELFTEST FAIL – Self test of the fuel flow measurement circuitry has failed.
FUEL NOT CONFIRMED – The FMS was started up in the Standby mode and the fuel has not been confirmed on FUEL page 1.
GLONASS DEPENDENT NAV – The FMS is in GPS NAV mode, the GNSS sensor is in NAV mode and the total number of GPS satellites is less than four and at least one GLONASS satellite is in use.
GLS, GNSS, GPIR(?) GPS  messages are the same and the terms are somewhat interchangable ---
GLS FACILITY INVALIDGLS ground station failure.
Gxx # CONFIG MODULE FAIL – A mismatch has occurred between the configuration module and the Gxx.
Gxx # DESELECT – The sensor determined Gxx data  unreasonable and  deselected sensor. This message will be removed after it is read.
Record GPS status page information for maintenance. Monitor HIL on GPS status page and when it meets phase of flight accuracy, reselect GPS. On over water legs it is possible that GPS could get deselected when, in fact, the IRS is in error. If review of the GPS status page indicates GPS to have a valid position, the pilot may choose to deselect the IRS and reselect GPS.
Gxx # DIFFERENCE > xxNM – The sensor “Watchdog” has sensed that the latitude/longitude position as determined by Gxx #1 or #2 differs from the FMS best computed position by an amount that warrants pilot attention. “xx” can be 6, 12, 18 or 24NM.
Select Data page 2 and attempt to determine whether GPS, DME, or other NAV sensors are in error. The NAV sensor that is pulling off the best computed position must be deselected. In areas of the world where there are few DME stations or where the surveyed position of the DME stations is questionable, deselecting DME may be necessary.
Gxx # FAIL – A failed status has been determined for the indicated Gxx.
1. Press the DATA key to access DATA 2/4.
2. Place cursor over sensor to access the Sensor Status Page.
3. Check the sensor status.
Gxx # NOT NAV – The specified GLS has change to a not navigational (neither DGPS, Navigation, nor Altitude aiding nor Fault) condition. GLS status page will show the cause of the change.
GLS VDL FAIL – This message will follow an APPR FACILITY INVALID message. It informs the crew that the approach facility may be operational but the GLS VHF Data Link board has failed.
GPS INTEG – Will illuminate if the GPS Horizontal Integrity Limits (HIL) for the current phase of flight have been violated. During approach active, for an approach for which GPS is being used, this annunciator will illuminate if RAIM is not available.
– Displayed if a non-RAIM GPS is the only position sensor available. Message is displayed 60 seconds after condition exists and remains as long as condition exists. Message is suppressed on the ground or while operating in the FIAS ‘GPS only’ mode.
HEADING REF FAIL – The AC reference for the Analog Heading input has failed.
HIGH GROUNDSPEED FOR ARC – An AF or RF is the current leg and the groundspeed is too high for the aircraft to stay within the bounds of the arc.
HIGH GNDSPD FOR HOLDING – In holding mode, the current groundspeed is excessive for holding airspace. This may be due to either high winds or high TAS. The pilot should lower airspeed if feasible.
ILLEGAL FACILITY TYPE – The entered facility - invalid type for this approach.
ILLEGAL WAYPOINT – A waypoint that is more than 6° from being on the inbound course or is greater than 99.9nm from the FAF has been entered into the first optional waypoint position in the approach definition pages. Or, a turn center waypoint has been entered for a pilot defined RF leg that creates a radius greater than 32nm.
IMS BUS FAIL – A valid SSM(?) is not detected on the bus. This applies to the Sextant IMS configuration used on deHavilland DHC-8 S400.
INVALID ARINC VERSION – Two ARINC circuit boards are installed which do not have the same software version number.
INVALID CONFIGURATION – The FMS configuration is unknown. This message can only occur on the ground.
INVALID FUEL CONFIG – The fuel flow sensor configuration is invalid or incomplete. The fuel flow function will be disabled.
INVALID ROUTE UPLINK – UniLink has detected an error during a FPN uplink.
LAT/LONG XING WPT ALERT – This is displayed 15 seconds prior to sequencing time for latitude or longitude intersection.
LOC STEERING ACTIVE – An ILS, LOC or BC Approach is active and the localizer signal is used in the roll steering equation.
MANUAL LEG CHANGE REQD – The aircraft is on a CA, FA, or VA ??? leg and barometric altitude is not available to the FMS. The crew must make a manual leg chance to sequence the waypoint.
MEMORY BANK # FAIL – In dual cycle memory bank FMS’s, either memory bank 1 or memory bank 2 has failed and all databases in that failed bank are not usable.
1. Reload the navigation database in the other bank.
MODE KEYS INOP – DISK PAGE – A disallowed mode key was pressed while any disk function page is displayed, other than Disk Menu.
NAV DATABASES FAILED – All segments of the navigation database failed simultaneously. This message replaces all individual segment messages.
1. Reload navigation database.
NDB DATABASE FAIL – A problem has been found in the NDB database. Access to this database will not be permitted.
1. Reload navigation database.
NDB NAME DATABASE FAIL – An error was detected in the NDB plain language name database.
1. Reload navigation database.
NEW MAINT LOG EXISTS – This message is displayed one minute after landing when any diagnostic history event has been recorded during the previous flight.
1. Refer to “Maintenance Data Download” section of this manual for procedure to download and display the Maintenance Log
NEXT LEG UNDEFINED – A GAP is in the next flight plan waypoint position. The flight plan must be edited by the pilot to eliminate the GAP. If the GAP is not eliminated, the aircraft will fly to the current TO waypoint, and after waypoint passage will continue to fly the same desired track with the TO/FROM flag now indicating FROM. The WPT annunciator will remain illuminated after waypoint passage and a CURRENT LEG EXTENDED message will appear on the message page.
NOTE: The gap placed at the end of the approach before the destination airport does not trigger this message.
1. Press the FPL key to access the flight plan.
2. Edit the flight plan to remove GAP.
NEXT VNAV LEG INVALID – Next lateral leg is not valid for VNAV. This message will apply to procedural legs in SIDs, STARs and approaches which are “floating waypoints”, e.g., heading to intercept a VOR radial.
NO DME RECEIVED –  DME  was tuned and no data was received for 5 minutes.
NO GPS INT@FAF  See below
NO GPS INT@MAP – No response is received from the sensor or HIL exceeds 0.3nm.
NO HEADING – No heading information is being received. This message will not be displayed while on the ground. If a valid heading source was available, it should have already been automatically selected.
1. Press DATA key to access DATA 4/4.
2. Press HDG to place the cursor over the heading field.
3. Press LIST key to access HDG SRC page. Change heading source if desired.
4. If no other heading source is available, manually input the aircraft’s heading on DATA 4/4.
NO INTERCEPT – System is in the heading intercept mode and the selected heading will not intercept current NAV leg.
NO RAIM @ FAF – RAIM may not be available at the Final Approach Fix or HIL is greater than 0.3nm.
NO RAIM @ MAP – RAIM is not available at the Missed Approach Point or HIL is greater than 0.3nm.
NO SATELLITE INTEG – GPS integrity monitoring is not available for 27 seconds in Enroute and for 7 seconds in Terminal phase of flight. In Approach phase after FAF, GPS integrity monitoring is not available and HDOP? is greater than 4.0 for 7 seconds.
NO TACAN RECEIVED – TACAN list was tuned and no data was received for 5 minutes.
NO VOR RECEIVED – VOR list was tuned and no data was received for 5 minutes.
NONVOLATILE MEMORY FAIL – The non-volatile memory has failed the power-up test. Some or all of the NVM parameters may be lost. This message can only occur following system initialization.
OTHER FMS HEADING FAILED – The FMS is using heading from the other FMS, and that heading has failed.
1. Press the DATA key to access DATA 4/4.
2. Place cursor over the HDG field.
3. Press the LIST key to access the HDG SRC page and select another source if available.
PILOT ALIGN DB UPDATED – This message displays after the Check All process. Indicates a change to the pilot alignment point database based on loaded or resident navigation data. Requires redefinition or confirmation by the pilot.
– A problem has been detected in the xxx defined approach database.
1. Reload data from Pilot Data Save disk.



Displayed following the Check All Process. Indicates a change to the pilot xxx database based on loaded or resident navigation data. Requires redefinition or confirmation by the pilot.
PILOT DATABASES FAILED – The database of all pilot defined locations has failed.
1.Reload data from Pilot Data Save disk.
POSITION CORRECTING – normally occurs when reacquiring DMEs following an over water or other non-DME environment flight segment. Best Computed Position is in the process of being corrected.
POSITION UNCERTAIN – The FMS position is uncertain (not verified). A quality factor “Q” /ANP of 28 triggers this message within 300nm of DME sources. In approach mode, a “ANP” of 28, 10 or 5 may also trigger this message depending upon the distance from the end-of-approach point and the type of approach. In terminal operations an ANP of 10 or more within 30nm of departure or destination airport will create this message. A “ANP” of 60 triggers the message outside of DME range, unless operating on valid IRSs only. In the event the POS UNCERTAIN message occurs under these conditions, the message can be removed and the “Q” reset to a lower number by selecting the HOLD function and then verifying the FMS Best Computed Position.
1. Refer to Best Computed Position Update Procedure. This action will deactivate this message.
Go to data page 2 and identify NAV sensors being used for computing the Best Computed Position. In some instances where DME stations are few and far between or are unreliable, deselecting DME and using GPS as the primary sensor may help restore the required quality of navigation.
POS UNCERTAIN on ground – After successful initialization and the aircraft is being taxied; a position uncertain message is presented.
Check for valid heading source on DATA page 4. Heading failed message is suppressed on the ground. Record information for maintenance.
PROGRAM CHECK FAIL – A problem has been found in the program software.
1. Monitor the system closely. There is a high probability that the system will fail the initial self-tests the next time it is turned on.
2. After landing and shutdown, turn the system off and then on again in order to troubleshoot.
RESET ALT PRESELECT – The aircraft is within two minutes of a VNAV Top of Descent, and the altitude preselector has not been reset to an altitude at least 200 feet below current altitude. VNAV cannot be armed on the flight guidance system until the altitude preselector has been reset to a lower altitude.
ROUTE CAPACITY EXCEEDED – An attempt has been made to create a route with over 98 waypoints.
ROUTE DATABASE FULL – An attempt has been made to create over 200 routes, or to use over 3000 waypoints in all routes.
RRS DATA BUS FAILRRS communication link with the FMS has failed.
RRS (DME, TACAN, VOR) RECOVER – The FMS has recovered from a ‘No (DME, TACAN, VOR) Received’ condition.
RRS (DME, TACAN, VOR) SELF TEST FAIL – The FMS has detected a failure during RRS self test mode.
RRS (DME, TACAN, VOR) TUNE FAIL – The RRS did not tune the requested frequency within a specified time (VOR = 8 sec, TACAN = 8 sec, DME = 4 sec). RRS RECOVER – Unit has recovered from one of the above conditions.
RRS TUNE BUS FAIL – The RRS has not received any tuning labels from this FMS.
RTU # FAIL – A failure has been detected in the specified Radio Tuning Unit.
RUNWAY DATABASE FAIL – The runway database has failed.
1. Reload navigation database.
RUNWAY IN USE – This runway is in use in an approach or flight plan and cannot be modified or deleted.
SATELLITE POS ALARM – GPS error is outside of phase of flight limits for specified time.
SIGMETS RCVD – SIGMETS data has been received via AFIS Uplink or AFIS DTU.
SOFTWARE CONFIG MISMATCH – The loaded version of software does not match the installation compatibility version number stored in the configuration module.
SPEED TOO FAST FOR TURN – RF leg is current lateral guidance leg and the groundspeed is too high for the aircraft to stay within bounds of the arc.
STAR DATABASE FAIL – The STAR database has failed.
1. Reload navigation database.
STEERING FAIL – Roll steering self-test failure (continuous). This failure may be reset.
1. Press the DATA key to access DATA 4/4.
2. Position the cursor over the ROLL CMD line.
3. Press the BACK key then the ENTER key to reset.  Verify.

SXTK – Will be illuminated during the time the FMS is in selected crosstrack mode.
– TACAN input has failed.
TAS INVALID – The True Airspeed portion of the Air Data Computer is not usable. A manual input of TAS may be made on the ADC Status page.
1. Press the DATA key until DATA 2/4 is accessed.
2. Press the line select key at ADC to access ADC 1/1.
3. At the TAS field, enter current true airspeed. A manual TAS overrides any ADC input.
If the ALT INVALID message is also active, the ADC Status page, under the DATA key, will indicate “ADC FAILED.” Crossfill heading and/or TAS from offside FMS if available.
TAWS FAIL – as is
TERMINALS DATABASE FAIL – The terminal intersection database has failed.
1. Reload navigation database.
TERMINAL WEATHER RCVD – Terminal weather data has been received via AFIS Uplink or AFIS DTU.
TEST MODE – The system is in test mode.
TOP OF DESCENT ALERT – Estimated time to TOD is less than two minutes.
TUNE NAVAID – The navaid specified in the approach definition is not tuned at entry to approach mode and should be tuned to get valid displays.
TUNE NAV# - TO XXX ON FFF.FF – For VOR or RNV, there are less than 2 DME stations available, and the current tuned VOR is greater than 80NM away or is invalid. The XXX and FFF.FF are filled with the identifier and frequency of the nearest valid VOR.
1. Press the TUNE line select key to remote tune the VOR receiver to the displayed frequency if Remote Tune is enabled (programmed into the Configuration Module at installation). Otherwise, manually tune the VOR using the control head.
UNILINK FAIL – The UniLink unit has been determined to be in a failed state by the FMC monitoring the UniLink.
UNILINK MSG RCVD – A new UniLink text message has been received.
1. Press the UNILINK prompt to access UniLink Main Menu.
2. Press NEW MSG prompt on the UniLink Main Menu to view message.
UNILINK ROUTE RCVD – Receipt of an FMC route uplink which passes error check and is ready to be reviewed.
UNILINK RTE INVALID – Receipt of an FMC route uplink which fails error check and is rejected.
UNILINK WX MAP RCVD – A new UniLink weather map has been received from Universal Weather and Aviation.
1. Press the UNILINK prompt to access UNILINK Main Menu.
2. Press NEW WX prompt the UniLink Main Menu to view the new weather map.
UPLINK MESSAGE RCVD – A message has been received from the Global Data Center.
VARIATION WARNING – The aircraft is out of the auto-variation model range (above N72 degrees, 45 minutes and below S59 degrees, 45 minutes latitudes), there is no manual input, and the TRUE MAGNETIC switch is in the MAGNETIC position.
1. Press the DATA key to access DATA 4/4.
2. Press the VARIATION line select key to place the cursor over the variation field.
3. Enter a manual East or West variation.
VERIFY MANUAL RNP – A manual RNP has been entered and then a flight phase transition occurs and the new RNP limit is less than the manually entered RNP. Or, a manual RNP has been entered and a leg with a lower database RNP value is sequenced to in a linked flight plan.
VERTICAL WPT ALERT – This message appears approximately 15 seconds prior to a VNAV mode vertical leg change. The WPT and MSG annunciators on the instrument panel flash, along with the FMS MSG light. Pressing the MSG key will change the flashing WPT to steady, turn off the MSG light, and show the VNAV WPT ALERT message.
VHF NAME DATABASE FAIL – The VHF plain language name database has failed.
1.Reload navigation database.
VHF NAVAID DATABASE FAIL – The navaid database has failed. The backup navaid database, containing navaids and airports, will be used.
1. Reload navigation database.
VNAV DISCONNECT – An altitude or flight level has been entered on a FPL page that has resulted in a VNAV disconnect. Return to the PATH VNAV page to re-activate VNAV. This message will clear after it is read.
VOR TUNE FAIL – The 711 VOR has not tuned to the pilot requested frequency.
VPATH CAPTURE – This message is annunciated 15 seconds prior to sequencing Top of Descent or initiating the capture to vertical path from a tactical mode.
WAYPOINT ALERT – The aircraft position is within 15 seconds of a leg change while enroute, (or 5 seconds while using approach procedural legs) prior to the TO waypoint. The MSG light will not illuminate for this message. The instrument panel WPT (see below) alert annunciator will illuminate to alert the pilot of an impending leg change.
WAYPOINT IN USE – This message occurs when attempting to delete a waypoint from the pilot defined database which is in use on the flight plan.
Winds differ between FMS’s in dual FMS installation.
Between the FMS’s compare heading information from DATA page 4 and TAS from the ADC page. Determine which FMS heading or TAS information is incorrect. Record this information for maintenance and use the FMS displaying correct information.
WINDS ALOFT RCVD – Winds aloft data has been received via AFIS uplink or AFIS DTU.
WPT – Will illuminate in conjunction with a WAYPOINT ALERT message on the FMS. Only the WPT annunciator will illuminate the MSG annunciator will not illuminate.
When on and steady, alerts the pilot to a lateral waypoint change in 15 seconds while enroute, and 5 seconds in approach.
When on and flashing, alerts the pilot to a vertical waypoint changes as above.
XFILL CONFIG MISMATCH – Crossfill data has been pushed to an FMS not configured to receive that data type. This message alerts the crew that crossfill data was sent and received but not accepted. Once read this message is removed from the MESSAGE page.
400 Hz REF FAIL – 400 Hz (AC) power has failed and there is no input to the analog roll steering. This message is suppressed if the system is installed in an “all digital” aircraft. It remains on the message page as long as the condition exists.
+3 VOLT PWR SUPPLY FAIL – Self test for power supply has failed.
+5 VOLT PWR SUPPLY FAIL – Self test for power supply has failed.
+8 VOLT PWR SUPPLY FAIL – Self test for power supply has failed.
-8 VOLT PWR SUPPLY FAIL – Self test for power supply has failed.

The following error messages will appear whenever an invalid entry is made in TGT V/S or altitude data fields.

ADC ALT INV – (1) Aircraft altitude is < FL180 and only pressure altitude is available, or
                               (2) ADC altitude is failed.
APPR ALT – RESTR –  approach altitude restraint - entry for an approach waypoint that violates the database constraints.
CLEAR MAN ALT – A manual entry for altitude was made on the ADC status page.
CLR SXTK – Clear selected crosstrack - Aircraft is flying a selected crosstrack distance prior to VNAV activation.
CLR XFILL ALT – A VNAV plan is defined, but crossfilled altitude is being used by the system.
FPA TOO STEEP – Flight path angle is steeper than maximum FPA configured at time of installation.
LEG RESTRICTION – Entry is attempted when the active vertical leg is a GAP, HA, FA, CA, VA leg or a HM or HF leg that does not have any altitude constraints.
LINK NAV/FPL – VNAV distance is invalid because the VNAV plan is not linked to the guidance legs.
NO ENTRY – APPR – Entry is attempted for an approach waypoint when the approach is active.
NO ENTRY – HOLD – Entry is attempted during an active vertical holding leg.
NO ENTRY- VERT – Entry is attempted when the aircraft is in active VM or FM leg.
NO VWPT ALT – VNAV distance is invalid because the VNAV TO waypoint is undefined.
TARGET V/S HIGH – Value exceeds 6000 fpm or maximum flight path angle programmed in configuration module.
TARGET V/S LOW – Entered value is less than minimum required value.
V/S TOO HIGH – Value exceeds 6000 fpm or maximum flight path angle programmed in configuration module.
V/S TOO LOW – Entered value is less than minimum required value.
XTK TOO GREAT/HIGH – Current crosstrack is more than 12.5nm.